Antioxidants and Aging

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Healthy Lifestyle, Healthy Living, Supplements and Health

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

antioxidant agingModern medicine has helped mankind greatly extend our lifespan, but what about our “healthspan”? Aging is often associated with major degenerative diseases and loss of physical and mental functioning. As the saying goes: “Aging isn’t for sissies”. But, what if you could live healthy into your 80s and 90s? What if you had the health to truly enjoy the wisdom that comes with your years of experience?  In this article we will explore antioxidants and aging.

While healthy aging is a very personal issue for all of us in our golden years, it is a very important societal issue as well. The United Nations estimates that by 2050 more than 1/3 of the population of developed countries will be over 60. Unless we can find a way to preserve the health of these older adults, health care costs will bankrupt even the richest of countries.

That’s why the recently published study on the effect of antioxidant supplements on healthy aging in French adults (Assmann et al, American Journal of Epidemiology, 182: 694-704, 2015) is so interesting.

How Was The Study Designed?

studyThis study was a follow-up to the “Supplementation With Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals” study that was conducted in France during 1994-2002. That was a double blind, placebo controlled study in which participants were given either a placebo or a supplement containing 120 mg of vitamin C, 6 mg of beta-carotene, 30 mg of vitamin E, 100 ug of selenium, and 20 mg of zinc every day for an eight-year period. These nutrient levels were designed to be equivalent to the quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

The follow-up study was conducted approximately 5 years later with 3,996 of the original participants. The investigators specifically selected participants who were disease free when they entered the original study. These study participants were equally divided between men and women and had an average age of 65.3 years.

The participants were put through a battery of screens and assigned a “healthy aging score” based on:

  • Absence of cancer, heart disease and diabetes
  • Good physical and cognitive function
  • No limitations in activities associated with daily living
  • No depressive symptoms
  • No health-related limitations in social life
  • Good overall perceived health
  • No function-limiting pain

In short those participants with a high healthy aging score had good health and good quality of life.

Are Antioxidants the Secret to Healthy Aging?

antioxidant nutrientsWhen the investigators looked at the group as a whole, the results were pretty discouraging:

  • Antioxidant supplementation provided no significant benefit to the population as a whole.
  • Antioxidant supplementation also provided no significant benefit to the women in the group.

However, when they looked at subgroups, the results were much more encouraging:

  • Antioxidant supplementation increased the probability of healthy aging by 18% for the men in the study.
  • For those participants with low serum vitamin C levels at the beginning of the study antioxidant supplementation increased the probability of healthy aging by 28%
  • For those participants with low serum zinc levels at the beginning of the study antioxidant supplementation increased the probability of healthy aging by 26%
  • For those participants consuming very few fruits and vegetables at the beginning of the study, antioxidant supplementation increased the probability of healthy aging by 17%

The conflicting results for men and women were puzzling, but the investigators pointed out that very few women had low serum vitamin C status at the beginning of the study, while 25% of the men had low serum vitamin C levels at the beginning of the study. The investigators speculated that supplementation may have been less effective in women simply because they had better diets than the men in the study. That certainly wouldn’t surprise me.

What Are The Strengths And Weaknesses Of This Study?

Let’s start with the strengths. This is the very first double-blind, placebo-controlled study to look at the role of antioxidant nutrients in healthy aging. A number of previous studies looking at the effect of antioxidant nutrients on individual components of aging have given conflicting results. The investigators pointed out that this study may have shown more beneficial effects of antioxidants than previous studies because:

  • Most previous studies have been relatively short in duration. This was an 8-year study with a 5-year follow-up period (total study length = 13 years).
  • Most previous studies did not measure baseline intake of the nutrients. This study shows that individuals with low baseline intake or low serum levels at the beginning of the study are significantly more likely to benefit from supplementation.
  • Most previous studies have measured the effects of single antioxidant nutrients, or at most combinations of 2 or 3 antioxidant nutrients. This study used a combination of 5 different antioxidant nutrients. The synergy between these nutrients may have increased the magnitude of the observed benefits.

The weaknesses of the study are also pretty apparent.

  • Since it is the first study of its kind, it does need to be validated by additional studies.
  • There is no universally accepted index for healthy aging (This is a problem for aging research as a whole, not just this study).
  • The participants in the study were not evaluated for healthy aging criteria at the beginning of the study so we have no idea how their healthy aging score changed over time.
  • The beneficial effect of antioxidant nutrients, while significant, were relatively small. You are obviously not going to live healthy to 100 by consuming antioxidant supplements alone.

Antioxidants and Aging:  Will Antioxidant Nutrients Help You?

aging gracefullyThis study does suggest that antioxidant supplements may help you achieve healthy aging. This study also makes three other very important points:

  • A holistic approach to supplementation – one involving multiple antioxidant nutrients – is much more likely to be beneficial than individual antioxidant supplements.
  • Supplementation is most likely to be beneficial for those individuals who are consuming a poor diet.
  • Supplementation is also most likely to be beneficial for those individuals who have low serum level of essential nutrients. This can be due to poor diet, but low serum levels of individual nutrients can also be caused by individual differences in metabolism or genetic make-up.

However, as noted above:

  • The study has some weaknesses and needs to be repeated.
  • The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients were relatively small.

That means that holistic approaches to healthy aging are more likely to be beneficial than individual supplements. Based on what we currently know a holistic approach to healthy aging includes:

  • Consuming a combination of a balanced diet and supplementation that provides sufficient levels of all the essential nutrients, not just the antioxidant nutrients. This would include things like omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols.
  • Avoiding saturated and trans fats, excess sugar, red and processed meats, which may have bad effects on your health.
  • Controlling your weight.
  • Staying mentally and physically active.
  • Maintaining strong social networks.
  • Maintaining a positive outlook on life.

 

The Bottom Line

  • A recent study suggests that antioxidant supplements may help you achieve healthy aging. This study also makes two other very important points:
  • A holistic approach to supplementation – one involving multiple antioxidant nutrients – is much more likely to be beneficial than individual antioxidant supplements.
  • Supplementation is most likely to be beneficial for those individuals who are consuming a poor diet and/or have low serum levels of essential nutrients.
  • Since the beneficial effect of antioxidant nutrients on healthy aging was relatively small, this suggests the antioxidant nutrients are just one part of a holistic approach to healthy aging that includes.
  • Consuming a combination of a balanced diet and supplementation that provides sufficient levels of all the essential nutrients, not just the antioxidant nutrients. This would include things like omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols.
  • Avoiding saturated and trans fats, excess sugar, red and processed meats, which may have bad effects on your health.
  • Controlling your weight.
  • Staying mentally and physically active.
  • Maintaining strong social networks.
  • Maintaining a positive outlook on life.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Trackback from your site.

Leave a comment

Recent Videos From Dr. Steve Chaney

READ THE ARTICLE
READ THE ARTICLE

Latest Article

Do Omega-3s Lower Blood Pressure in Young, Healthy Adults?

Posted August 14, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

What Is The Omega-3 Index And Why Is It Important?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Do omega-3s lower blood pressure in healthy adults?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young adultsThe literature on the potential health benefits of omega-3s is very confusing. That’s because a lot of bad studies have been published. Many of them never determined the omega-3 status of their subjects prior to omega-3 supplementation. Others relied on dietary recalls of fish consumption, which can be inaccurate.

Fortunately, a much more accurate measure of omega-3 status has been developed and validated in recent years. It’s called the Omega-3 Index. Simply put, the Omega-3 Index is the percentage of EPA and DHA compared to 26 other fatty acids found in cellular membranes. Using modern technology, it can be determined from a single finger prick blood sample. It is a very accurate reflection of omega-3 intake relative to other fats in the diet over the past few months. More importantly, it is a measure of the omega-3 content of your cell membranes, which is a direct measure of your omega-3 nutritional status.

A recent extension of the Framingham Heart Study reported that participants with an Omega-3 Index >6.8% had a 39% lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those with an Omega-3 Index <4.2% (WS Harris et al, Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 12: 718-724, 2018 ). Although more work needs to be done, an Omega-3 Index of 4% or less is generally considered indicative of high cardiovascular risk, while 8% or better is considered indicative of low cardiovascular risk. For reference, the average American has an Omega-3 Index in the 4-5% range. In Japan, where fish consumption is much higher and cardiovascular risk much lower, the Omega-3 Index is in the 9-11% range.

Previous studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure to a modest extent. Thus, it is not surprising that more recent studies have shown an inverse correlation between Omega-3 Index and blood pressure. However, those studies have been done with older populations, many of whom had already developed high blood pressure.

From a public health point of view, it is much more interesting to investigate whether it might be possible to prevent high blood pressure in older adults by optimizing omega-3 intake in a young, healthy population, most of whom had not yet developed high blood pressure. Unfortunately, there were no studies looking at that population. The current study was designed to fill that gap.

 

How Was The Study Done?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young healthy adultsThe current study (M.G. Filipovic et al, Journal of Hypertension, 36: 1548-1554, 2018 ) was based on data collected from 2036 healthy adults, aged 25-41, from Liechtenstein. They were participants in the GAPP (Genetic and Phenotypic Determinants of Blood Pressure) study. Participants were excluded from the study if they had been diagnosed with high blood pressure and were taking medication to lower their blood pressure. They were also excluded if they had heart disease, chronic kidney disease, other severe illnesses, obesity, sleep apnea, or daily use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.

Blood samples were collected at the time of their enrollment in the study and frozen for subsequent determination of Omega-3 Index. Blood pressure was also measured at their time of enrollment in two different ways. The first was a standard blood pressure measurement in a doctor’s office.

For the second measurement they were given a wearable blood pressure monitor that recorded their blood pressure over 24 hours every 15 minutes during the day and every 30 minutes while they were sleeping. This is considered more accurate than a resting blood pressure measurement in a doctor’s office because it records the variation in blood pressure, while you are sleeping, while you are exercising, and while you go about your everyday activities.

 

Do Omega-3s Lower Blood Pressure In Young, Healthy Adults?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young adults equipmentNone of the participants in the study had significantly elevated blood pressure. The mean systolic and diastolic office blood pressures were 120±13 and 78±9 respectively. The average Omega-3 Index in this population was 4.6%, which is similar to the average Omega-3 Index in the United States.

When they compared the group with the highest Omega-3 Index (average = 5.8%) with the group with the lowest Omega-3 Index (average = 4.6%):

  • The office measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was decreased by 3.3% and 2.6% respectively
  • While those numbers appear small, the differences were highly significant.
  • The 24-hour blood pressure measurements showed a similar decrease.
  • Blood pressure measurements decreased linearly with increasing Omega-3 Index. [In studies of this kind, a linear dose-response is considered an internal validation of the differences observed between the group with the highest Omega-3 Index and the group with the lowest Omega-3 Index.]

The authors concluded: “A higher Omega-3 Index is associated with statistically significant, clinically relevant, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normotensive, young and healthy individuals. Diets rich omega-3 fatty acids may be a strategy for primary prevention of hypertension.”

 

What Does This Mean For You?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young adults questionPerhaps I should first comment on the significance of the relatively small decrease in blood pressure observed in this study.

  • These were young adults, all of whom had normal or near normal blood pressure.
  • The difference in Omega-3 Index was rather small (5.8% to 4.6%). None of the participants in the study were at the 8% or above that is considered optimal.
  • Liechtenstein is a small country located between Switzerland and Spain. Fish consumption is low and omega-3 supplement consumption is rare.

Under these conditions, even a small, but statistically significant, decrease in blood pressure is remarkable.

We should think of this study as the start of the investigation of the relationship between omega-3 status and blood pressure. Its weakness is that it only shows an association between high Omega-3 Index and low blood pressure. It does not prove cause and effect.

Its strength is that it is consistent with many other studies showing omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure. Furthermore, it suggests that the effect of omega-3s on blood pressure may also be seen in young, healthy adults who have not yet developed high blood pressure.

Finally, the authors suggested that a diet rich in omega-3s might reduce the incidence of high blood pressure by slowing the age-related increase in blood pressure that most Americans experience. This idea is logical, but speculative at present.

However, the GAPP study is designed to provide the answer to that question. It is a long-term study with follow-up examinations scheduled every 3-5 years. It will be interesting to see whether the author’s prediction holds true, and a higher Omega-3 Index is associated with a slower increase in blood pressure as the participants age.

 

Why Is The Omega-3 Index Important?

 

The authors of this study said: “The Omega-3 Index is very robust to short-term intake of omega-3 fatty acids and reliably reflects an individual’s long-term omega-3 status and tissue omega-3 content. Therefore, the Omega-3 Index has the potential to become a cardiovascular risk factor as much as the HbA1c is for people with diabetes…” That is a bit of an overstatement. HbA1c is a measure of disease progression for diabetes because it is a direct measure of blood sugar control.

In contrast, Omega-3 Index is merely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, if it is further validated by future studies, it is likely to be as important for predicting cardiovascular risk as are cholesterol levels and markers of inflammation.

However, to me the most important role of Omega-3 Index is in the design of future clinical studies. If anyone really wants to determine whether omega-3 supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk, high blood pressure, diabetes or any other health outcome they should:

  • Start with a population group with an Omega-3 Index in the deficient (4-5%) range.
  • Supplement with omega-3 fatty acids in a double blind, placebo-controlled manner.
  • Show that supplementation brought participants up to an optimal Omega-3 Index of 8% or greater.
  • Look at health outcomes such as heart attacks, cardiovascular deaths, hypertension, stroke, or depression.
  • Continue the study long enough for the beneficial effects of omega-3 supplementation to be measurable. For cardiovascular outcomes the American Heart Association has stated that at least two years are required to obtain meaningful results.

These are the kind of experiments that will be required to give definitive, reproducible results and resolve the confusion about the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

 

The Bottom Line

 

An accurate measure of omega-3 status has been developed and validated in recent years. It’s called the Omega-3 Index. Simply put, the Omega-3 Index is the percentage of EPA and DHA compared to 26 other fatty acids found in cellular membranes.

Although more work needs to be done, an Omega-3 Index of 4% or less is generally considered indicative of high cardiovascular risk while 8% or better is considered indicative of low cardiovascular risk.

Previous studies have shown an inverse correlation between Omega-3 Index and blood pressure. However, these studies have been done with older populations, many of whom had already developed high blood pressure.

From a public health point of view, it is much more interesting to investigate whether it might be possible to prevent high blood pressure in older adults by optimizing omega-3 intake in a young, healthy population, most of whom had not yet developed high blood pressure. Until now, there have been no studies looking at that population.

The study described in this article was designed to fill that gap. The participants in this study were ages 25-41, were healthy, and none of them had elevated blood pressure.

When the group with the highest Omega-3 Index (average = 5.8%) was compared with the group with the lowest Omega-3 Index (average = 4.6%):

  • Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were decreased
  • Blood pressure measurements decreased linearly with increasing Omega-3 Index.

The authors concluded: “A higher Omega-3 Index is associated with statistically significant, clinically relevant, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normotensive, young and healthy individuals. Diets rich omega-3 fatty acids may be a strategy for primary prevention of hypertension.”

Let me translate that last sentence into plain English for you. The authors were saying that optimizing omega-3 intake in young adults may slow the age-related increase in blood pressure and reduce the risk of them developing high blood pressure as they age. This may begin to answer the question “Do omega-3s lower blood pressure in young, healthy adults?”

Or even more simply put: Aging is inevitable. Becoming unhealthy is not.

For more details, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

UA-43257393-1