The Benefits of Resveratrol

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Drugs and Health, Exercise, Food and Health, Muscle Therapy and Health

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

exerciseSome athletes, particularly Olympic athletes, are starting to use resveratrol to improve their workouts and their performance in events. Is their belief in the benefits of resveratrol justified, or is resveratrol just another of those “mythical” sports nutrition supplements? There have only been a few small studies on the subject, and those studies have been conflicting.

The study I am featuring this week (Polley et al, Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 41: 26-32, 2016) asked a more fundamental question. It asked whether resveratrol enhanced the effect of exercise on muscle mitochondrial capacity. For those of you who aren’t scientists that statement may require some interpretation.

What Are Mitochondria and Why Are They Important?

You can think of mitochondria as the power packs of the cell. They are tiny organelles that are found in most cells in our body. The foods that we eat contain a lot of energy (calories), but that energy is not in a form that our cells can use. Our cells metabolize those foods into small molecules that donate electrons to our mitochondria, and the mitochondria use those electrons to create energy in a form that our cells can utilize.

As you might imagine, mitochondria are particularly important for cells with high energy requirements, like our muscle cells. Those muscle cells responsible for endurance and high intensity (think gymnastics or weight lifting) exercise have the highest density of mitochondria and are the most dependent on those mitochondria for optimal performance.

Why Resveratrol Might Increase Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity?

mitochondriaMitochondria have a finite lifetime in our cells. As our cells age their mitochondria become less efficient and start doing bad things like releasing damaging free radicals into the cell. Exercise stress causes the mitochondria in our muscles to age more rapidly than the mitochondria in other cells. Fortunately, regular exercise also stimulates a pathway that causes production of new mitochondria and enhances their efficiency. Thus, the net effect of any exercise program is to increase both the number and efficiency of mitochondria, something referred to as mitochondrial capacity.

It turns out that resveratrol and a small group of related polyphenols also stimulate the same pathway. Animal and cell culture studies show that resveratrol can increase muscle mitochondrial capacity. However, since resveratrol and exercise increase mitochondrial capacity by the same mechanism, the question is whether resveratrol has any added benefit over exercise alone. That is the question this study was designed to answer.

The Benefits of Resveratrol on Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity?

Previous studies had suggested that one of the benefits of resveratrol might be increasing muscle mitochondrial capacity for people who have engaged in relatively little physical activity in the past. For examples, studies have shown that resveratrol activates the pathway leading to increased mitochondrial capacity in obese and diabetic populations, both groups that may not have been involved in regular exercise. In contrast, other studies found no enhancement of those same pathways compared to exercise alone in more highly trained populations involved in high intensity training.

benefits of resveratrolBased on those results, the present study (Polley et al, Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 41: 26-32, 2016) was specifically designed to assess the effect of resveratrol supplementation along with low-intensity exercise in an untrained muscle group. The authors recruited healthy young adults with approximately equal numbers of men and women. To assure that the muscle group was relatively untrained, they asked the subjects to perform wrist flexor exercises in their non-dominant arm. They excluded from the study anyone whose exercise regimen involved regular use of the non-dominant forearm such as rowing, rock climbing or CrossFit.

This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Half of the group received 500 mg of resveratrol and the other half received the placebo. The placebo group served as a control for the effect of exercise alone. The dominant arm was not exercised, so it served as a control for the effect of resveratrol alone. The participants took resveratrol or placebo upon wakening each morning. The wrist flexor exercises were performed 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Mitochondrial capacity measurements were made using near infrared spectroscopy on a weekly basis.

The results were pretty straight-forward.

  • Low-intensity training alone (placebo group) for 4 weeks resulted in a 10% increase in mitochondrial capacity.
  • Low-intensity training plus resveratrol for 4 weeks resulted in a 40% increase in mitochondrial capacity. This represented a highly significant difference between the resveratrol and placebo groups.
  • Neither the resveratrol group or the placebo group exhibited changes in the untrained arm, which suggests that resveratrol without exercise has little or no effect on mitochondrial capacity in young, healthy subjects.

The authors concluded: “Taken together, these findings indicate that [the] combination of exercise and resveratrol is needed for eliciting maximal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to low-intensity training programs.”

What Are the Strengths and Weaknesses of This Study?

Strengths:Because previous studies had suggested that the effects of resveratrol might be masked in highly trained individuals or by high intensity exercise, this study was specifically designed to look at the effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial capacity when administered along with low-intensity exercise in untrained muscles. In that sense this study breaks new ground and suggests that, under the right conditions, resveratrol can enhance exercise training.

Weaknesses:The weaknesses of this study were many:

  • It was a very small study. That is not unusual in this area of research, but clearly much more research is needed.
  • It used a higher dose of resveratrol than previous studies. However, plasma levels of resveratrol were not determined and the effect of lower doses was also not determined, so we have no idea how much resveratrol is actually needed to elicit this response.
  • While increased mitochondrial capacity is a probable predictor of improved exercise efficiency, no performance outcomes were actually measured. Most people probably don’t care how well their mitochondria work. They care about how well their muscles perform.

What Does This Mean For You?

We are in the very early stages of research into the benefits of resveratrol on exercise. Many more studies are needed before we will be in a position to fully understand the effects of resveratrol on exercise efficiency and performance outcomes. This and previous studies suggest that resveratrol is likely to be most effective at enhancing exercise efficiency with low intensity exercise in relatively untrained muscles.

If true, that would mean resveratrol might be helpful for the millions of Americans who are “weekend warriors” or exercise sporadically. It may even be beneficial for those of us who exercise regularly at a low to moderate intensity level.

However, because resveratrol and exercise improve mitochondrial capacity by the same mechanism, previous studies suggest that resveratrol might be a less effective addition for highly trained athletes engaged in high-intensity exercise.If true, this would put resveratrol in the same category as several other popular exercise supplements such as arginine and citrulline that also appear to be more effective for untrained individuals than they are for highly trained athletes.

However, I am aware of many Olympic athletes who use and swear by a resveratrol polyphenol blend. It could be placebo, but it could also suggest that resveratrol does enhance performance for highly trained athletes engaged in high-intensity exercise. As I said at the beginning of this section, there is much more research to do. That’s what makes science so much fun. There are always new things to learn.

 

The Bottom Line 

We are in the very early stages of research into the benefits of resveratrol on exercise. Many studies will be needed before we will be in a position to fully understand the effects of resveratrol on exercise efficiency and performance outcomes. However, a recent study is of interest because it introduces a new perspective to our understanding of the possible effects of resveratrol on exercise efficiency.

  • Thisstudy reports that resveratrol significantly enhances the increase in mitochondrial capacity caused by low-intensity exercise in untrained muscles
  • If true, that would mean resveratrol might increase exercise efficiency for the millions of Americans who are “weekend warriors” or exercise sporadically. It may even be beneficial for those of us who exercise regularly at a low to moderate intensity level.
  • However, because resveratrol and exercise improve mitochondrial capacity by the same mechanism, previous studies suggest that resveratrol might be a less effective addition for highly trained athletes engaged in high-intensity exercise.
  • If true, this would put resveratrol in the same category as several other popular exercise supplements such as arginine and citrulline that also appear to be more effective for untrained individuals than they are for highly trained athletes.
  • However, I am aware of many Olympic athletes who use and swear by a resveratrol polyphenol blend. It could be placebo, but it could also suggest that resveratrol does enhance performance for highly trained athletes engaged in high-intensity exercise.

As I said before, there is much more research to do. That’s what makes science so much fun. There are always new things to learn.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Latest Article

How to Choose the Right Pillow

Posted April 17, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Wake Up Each Morning Pain Free

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

how to choose the right pillow without headachesThe way you sleep is often a key to discovering the cause of headaches and more. If you wake up with neck pain, a headache, or you suffer from ringing in your ears, dizziness, or ear pain, there is a good possibility that it may be caused by the way you are sleeping. Your pillow may be the culprit.  But if you need to know how to choose the right pillow for you, it’s easy.   It just takes a little “investigation.”

 

How to Choose the Right Pillow if You Sleep On Your Side

Your head, neck, and spine need to always stay in a nice straight line, just as it is when you are standing up, but that takes a little thought and understanding of the way you sleep.  So, get comfy in your bed and then notice how your head is resting.

how to choose the right pillow to sleep painfreeIf you sleep on your side, your pillow needs to be just the right size, so your head doesn’t point down toward the mattress (your pillow is too soft) or up to the ceiling (your pillow is too thick). Either of these positions will make the muscles on the side of your neck stay in the contracted position for hours and pull your vertebrae in that direction, especially when you try to turn over to your other side.

Your SCM Muscle May Cause Serious Problems

You also need to notice if you turn your head a bit, especially if you are turning into your pillow or turning your head up toward away from your pillow. In either of these two cases you will be causing your sternocleidomastoid (SCM for short) to be held shortened for hours.

Your SCM originates on your collarbone and inserts into the bone behind your ear.  When it contracts you turn your head to the opposite side. However, if the muscle is tight (for example, when you’ve held your head turned toward one side for an extended period of time) and then you bring your head back so you are facing forward, the tight muscle will pull on the bone behind your ear and cause havoc.

The symptoms for a tight SCM are tinnitus (ringing in the ear), dizziness, loss of equilibrium, ear pain, headaches, pain in the eye and around the skull, pain at the top of the head, and even pain in the throat. Amazing! What’s even more amazing is that it’s rare that this muscle is considered when a medical professional is searching for the cause of your symptoms.

These are the things to know when considering how to choose the right pillow if you sleep on your side.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Back

how to choose the right pillow for sleeping on your backIf you sleep on your back, your head should be on the mattress (not propped up with a pillow) and you should have a tiny support (like a folded washcloth) under your neck.  Or, you can have a wedge pillow that starts at your mid-back and gently raises your entire trunk and head up while still allowing your head and back to be in a straight line.

It’s always a challenge for people who toss and turn during the night, sometimes on their side and sometimes on their back.  The best thing I’ve found for this situation is to have the pillow below shoulder level so when you turn on your side your shoulder will automatically slide to the edge of the pillow while still supporting your head properly, and when you turn onto your back, the pillow will start at shoulder level so your head and neck are supported, but your head is being pushed in a way that causes your chin to move down to your chest.

hip pain causes and treatment pain freeIt’s tricky, but I can personally attest to the fact that it will work.  I can always tell when I’ve had my head tilted (I toss and turn during the night) because I will wake with a headache. When that happens I’m grateful that I know how to self-treat the muscles of my neck and shoulders so the headache is eliminated quickly.  If you already have Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living,  you can self-treat all your neck and shoulder muscles to release the tension.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Stomach

If you sleep on your stomach, this is the one position that is so bad that it behooves you to force yourself to change your position. Your head is turned to the side and held still for hours, putting a severe strain on all your cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Not only will this cause headaches, tinnitus, and a list of other pains, but it can cause problems down your entire spine. It can also impinge on the nerves that pass through the vertebrae on their way to your organs.

If you do sleep that way, let me know and I’ll give you some suggestions that work to change your habit of sleeping. It takes time and energy, but the results are worth the effort.

In every case, the way you sleep may cause neck pain that won’t go away until the pillow situation is resolved.

Now you should know how to choose the right pillow for the way you sleep.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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