Blue Zones Longevity: Live to be 100, Healthy and Active

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Blue Zones

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

diet warsThe diet wars are raging. Everywhere you turn people are arguing about which diet is best. Each diet is based on plausible sounding hypotheses. Each diet has rigid do’s and don’ts. Proponents of these diets are absolutely convinced they have the only answer for a healthy life.

You’ve heard the arguments. It is fat that’s killing you. No, it’s the carbs. Saturated fats are bad for you. No, they’re good for you. Coconut oil is bad for you. No, you should eat as much of it as possible. Unsaturated fats are good for you. No, they’re bad for you. The list goes on and on.

It is so confusing. The “experts” arguing over which diet is best can’t all be right…or can they? What if they are like the fable of the 6 blind men grabbing different parts of an elephant and trying to describe the elephant. Each is describing part of the elephant, but none of them know what the whole elephant is like.

The problem is most diets are based on hypotheses derived from short-term clinical studies. For example, scientists design a clinical study that makes some changes to the diet, and cholesterol levels improve, or blood pressure improves, or markers of inflammation improve. Someone then incorporates those specific changes into their “diet program” and predicts what the health of people following their diet will be 20 or 30 years into the future. They write a book, and another diet fad is launched.

blue zonesThose diet authors are like one of the blind men. They have grabbed part of the elephant, and they are trying to predict what the whole elephant looks like based on the part they know. In most cases, they have no idea whether people who follow their diet for 20 or 30 years will be healthy. The long-term data to support their hypotheses simply does not exist.

What if you took the opposite approach? What if you started with the elephant? What if you asked people living healthy, active lives well into their 100s what they ate and how they lived?

Someone has done just that. His name is Dan Buettner. He identified five regions of the world, which he called ”Blue Zones,” where an unusually high percentage of people live into their 100s. He then asked the centenarians in each region about their diet and lifestyle. The results of this remarkable study were published in a book called “The Blue Zones.”

How Was The Study Done?

Dan Buettner is not a scientist. He is a journalist, and his initial “Blue Zone” expeditions were sponsored by National Geographic. However, to his credit he collaborated with the top scientists in the fields of demographics, social anthropology and statistics. In short, he did things right.

The demographers helped him locate the Blue Zones and poured over the birth and death records so they could prove beyond a shadow of a doubt these were regions where an extraordinary percentage of people lived to 100 and beyond. The social anthropologists helped him design the questionnaires and interview the centenarians. The statisticians helped him analyze the data.

blue zones longevityThe Blue Zones were very diverse. They consisted of:

  • A mountainous municipality on the Island of Sardinia off the coast of Italy.
  • Rural villages on the Island of Okinawa.
  • The 7th Day Adventist community in Loma Linda, California.
  • Some remote villages in Costa Rica
  • A small island called Ikaria off the coast of Greece.

Many of these locations are remote, but the 7th Day Adventist community lives in the heavily populated Los Angeles basin. In his book, Dan Buettner describes getting off the freeway and driving past all the usual fast food restaurants on his way to interview the 7th Day Adventist centenarians, who obviously never ate at those restaurants.

The people in each of these regions followed a lifestyle that was dramatically different from people in surrounding communities. In the case of the 7th Day Adventists, their lifestyle was based on their religious teachings. People in the other regions were simply following traditions passed down over many generations.

It is fascinating to read about each of these Blue Zone communities. There were some significant differences in the foods they ate and the way they lived their lives. However, Dan Buettner and his scientific collaborators were not interested in the differences. They were interested in the similarities.

The similarities were striking. More importantly, they tell us a lot about the kind of diet and lifestyle that is associated with health and longevity. This isn’t hypothetical health and longevity based on some short-term clinical studies. This is real life health and longevity based on people who have actually lived it.

What Do Blue Zones Tell Us About Longevity?

live to be 100 in blue zonesHere are the common characteristics of every Blue Zone studied. I call them “the secrets of the centenarians.”

#1: They engage in moderate intensity exercise every day. None of them run marathons or engage in high intensity workouts in the gym. Some are shepherds. Others tend their farms. The 7th Day Adventists take nature walks. Exercise isn’t planned. It is part of their daily life.

#2: They stop eating before they are full. As a child, I remember a TV add in which the actor would say “I can’t believe I ate the whole thing” before plopping two Alka-Seltzers in a glass of water. The long-living people in Blue Zones don’t do that. They stop eating when they are no longer hungry, not when they are full. Okinawans call it hara hachi bu, which roughly translates into stopping when their stomachs are 80% full. That simple practice cuts calories by 20% and dramatically reduces the incidence of obesity.

#3: They eat a mostly plant-based diet. They eat mostly fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Nuts also play an important role in their diet. Beans are the major protein source. They avoid processed foods and seldom eat meat. Strict 7th Day Adventists avoid meat entirely. The other Blue Zone populations ate meat primarily on special occasions. When they did eat meat, it was often pork or lamb. Based on the data from these Blue Zone populations, Dan Buettner recommends eating meat no more than twice a week, with each serving being the size of a deck of cards.

#4: They have a libation with their meals. For the Sardinians, it was red wine. For the Okinawans, it was sake. The key is moderation. No more than a glass or two. If you don’t drink, that’s fine too.

#5: They have a purpose in their lives. They have a reason to live. It can be service to others. It can be a hobby. It can be a quest for learning something new. Whatever it is, they have something to look forward to every day.

#6: They set aside time for relaxation. They have a time set aside each day to relax with friends or family and de-stress. This improves their mental outlook and reduces their risk of disease.

centarians#7: They participate in a spiritual community. The religions were different in each Blue Zone, but they all belonged to strong religious communities. As Dan Buettner put it: “The simple act of worship is one of those subtly powerful habits that seems to improve your chances of having more good years.”

#8: They put family first. They build their lives around their families, and when they become old their families take care of them.

#9: They surround themselves with communities that share their values. These social networks provide support, encouragement, and happiness.

As you read through the 9 things that these Blue Zone communities have in common, your first reaction may be one of dismay. In today’s world, it is exceedingly difficult to achieve all 9 elements of a centenarian lifestyle. Just be comforted with the thought that the more of these 9 elements you can incorporate into your personal “Blue Zone,”  the healthier you will be and the longer you will live.

 

What Do Blue Zones Tell Us About Diet?

If you have been trying to figure out what kind of diet is best for you, the biggest take home lesson from “The Blue Zones” is that you can forget all the absolutes you have heard from the proponents of various diet plans. For example:

  • All the Blue Zone communities included whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables as part of their diet. You don’t have follow a low carb diet to live to 100.
  • While all the Blue Zone communities ate a plant-based diet, most included some meat in their diet. You don’t have to go meatless to live to 100.
  • Some of the Blue Zone communities ate pork and lamb as their main meat. If you eat meats sparingly as part of a mostly plant-based diet, you can eat red meat and still live to 100.
  • Only two of the five Blue Zones were in the Mediterranean region. You don’t have to follow a Mediterranean diet to live to 100.

In short, the proponents of today’s popular diet plans are indeed like the 6 blind men trying to describe an elephant. When you see the entire elephant, it looks a lot different.

 

The Bottom Line

 

  1. In his book “The Blue Zones,” Dan Buettner described five regions of the world where an exceptionally high proportion of people are living healthy, active lives well into their 100s. He teamed with a group of scientists to find out what they eat and how they live.
  2. Here are the 9 common characteristics of every Blue Zone Community he studied:
    • They engage in moderate intensity exercise every day.
    • They stop eating before they are full.
    • They eat a mostly plant-based diet.
    • They have a libation with their meals.
    • They have a purpose in their lives.
    • They set aside time for relaxation.
    • They participate in a spiritual community.
    • They put family first.
    • They surround themselves with communities that share their values.
  3. As you read through 9 things the Blue Zone communities have in common, your first reaction might be one of dismay. In today’s world, it is exceedingly difficult to achieve all 9 elements of a centenarian lifestyle. Just be comforted with the thought that the more of these 9 elements you can incorporate into your personal “Blue Zone,” the healthier you will be and the longer you will live.
  4. When you look at what people in Blue Zone communities eat, the biggest take home lesson is that you can forget all the absolutes you have heard from the proponents of various popular diet plans. For example:
    • All the Blue Zone communities included whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables as part of their diet. You don’t have follow a low carb diet to live to 100.
    • While all the Blue Zone communities ate a plant-based diet, most included some meat in their diet. You don’t have to go meatless to live to 100.
    • Some of the Blue Zone communities ate pork and lamb as their main meat. If you eat meats sparingly as part of a mostly plant-based diet, you can eat red meat and still live to 100.
    • Only two of the five Blue Zones were in the Mediterranean region. You don’t have to follow a Mediterranean diet to live to 100.
  5. For details, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (2)

  • Allen Partch

    |

    Thanks Dr Steve Chaney Pam and I just started a plant based diet, and it always gets confusing on which diet is the best, I heard some people on a vegan diet after 19 years or so can be in worse health than people on the Standard American Diet, it is so confusing but this information email helped me know the truth and am convinced we are on the right path eliminating chicken beef pork and any fast food. Dr Steve helped clear up confusion about weather people on kemo should take supplements. Thanks Dr Steve for the info.

    Reply

  • Tammy Johnson

    |

    Thank you for this information. I was talking with a friend about this recently so it was good to have it reviewed and discussed from a Dr’s perspective. Thank you Steve!

    Reply

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Latest Article

Does Magnesium Optimize Vitamin D Levels?

Posted February 12, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

The Case For Holistic Supplementation

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Does magnesium optimize vitamin D levels?

magnesium optimize vitamin dOne of the great mysteries about vitamin D is the lack of correlation between vitamin D intake and blood levels of its active metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Many people who consume RDA levels of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements end up with low blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The reason(s) for this discrepancy between intake of vitamin D and blood levels of its active metabolite are not currently understood.

Another great mystery is why it has been so difficult to demonstrate benefits of vitamin D supplementation. Association studies show a strong correlation between optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and reduced risk of heart disease, cancer, and other diseases. However, placebo-controlled clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have often come up empty. Until recently, many of those studies did not measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Could it be that optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were not achieved?

The authors of the current study hypothesized that optimal magnesium status might be required for vitamin D conversion to its active form. You are probably wondering why magnesium would influence vitamin D metabolism. I had the same question.

The authors pointed out that:

  • Magnesium status affects the activities of enzymes involved in both the synthesis and degradation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • Some clinical studies have suggested that magnesium intake interacts with vitamin D intake in affecting health outcomes.
  • If the author’s hypothesis is correct, it is a concern because magnesium deficiency is prevalent in this country. In their “Fact Sheet For Health Professionals,” the NIH states that “…a majority of Americans of all ages ingest less magnesium from food than their respective EARs [Estimated Average Requirement]; adult men aged 71 years and older and adolescent females are most likely to have low intakes.” Other sources have indicated that magnesium deficiency may approach 70-80% for adults over 70.

If the author’s hypothesis that magnesium is required for vitamin D activation is correct and most Americans are deficient in magnesium, this raises some troubling questions.

  • Most vitamin D supplements do not contain magnesium. If people aren’t getting supplemental magnesium from another source, they may not be optimally utilizing the vitamin D in the supplements.
  • Most clinical studies involving vitamin D do not also include magnesium. If most of the study participants are deficient in magnesium, it might explain why it has been so difficult to show benefits from vitamin D supplementation.

Thus the authors devised a study (Q Dai et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108: 1249-1258, 2018 ) to directly test their hypothesis.

 

How Was The Study Designed?

magnesium optimize vitamin d studyThe authors recruited 180 volunteers, aged 40-85, from an ongoing study on the prevention of colon cancer being conducted at Vanderbilt University. The duration of the study was 12 weeks. Blood was drawn at the beginning of the study to measure baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Three additional blood draws to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were performed at weeks 1, 6, and 12.

Because high blood calcium levels increase excretion of magnesium, the authors individualized magnesium intake based on “optimizing” the calcium to magnesium ratio in the diet rather than giving everyone the same amount of magnesium. The dietary calcium to magnesium ratio for most Americans is 2.6 to 1 or higher. Based on their previous work, they considered an “ideal” calcium to magnesium ratio to be 2.3 to 1. The mean daily dose of magnesium supplementation in this study was 205 mg, with a range from 77 to 390 mg to achieve the “ideal” calcium to magnesium ratio. The placebo was an identical gel capsule containing microcrystalline cellulose.

Two 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted at baseline to determine baseline dietary intake of calcium and magnesium. Four additional 24-hour dietary recalls were performed during the 12-week study to assure that calcium intake was unchanged and the calcium to magnesium ratio of 2.3 to 1 was achieved.

In short this was a small study, but it was very well designed to test the author’s hypothesis.

 

Does Magnesium Optimize Vitamin D Levels?

 

does magnesium optimize vitamin d levelsThis was a very complex study, so I am simplifying it for this discussion. For full details, I refer you to the journal article (Q Dai et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108: 1249-1258, 2018).

The most significant finding was that magnesium supplementation did affect blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation varied depending on the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level at the beginning of the study.

  • When the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 20 ng/ml or less (which the NIH considers inadequate), magnesium supplementation had no effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
  • When the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 20-30 ng/ml (which the NIH considers the lower end of the adequate range), magnesium supplementation increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
  • When the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level approached 50 ng/ml (which the NIH says may be “associated with adverse effects”), magnesium supplementation lowered 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

The simplest interpretation of these results is:

  • When vitamin D intake is inadequate, magnesium cannot magically create 25-hydroxyvitamin D from thin air.
  • When vitamin D intake is adequate, magnesium can enhance the conversion of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • When vitamin D intake is too high, magnesium can help protect you by lowering 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

The authors concluded: “Our findings suggest that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. Further dosing studies are warranted…”

 

What Does This Study Mean For You?

magnesium optimize vitamin d for youThis was a groundbreaking study that has provided novel and interesting results.

  • It provides the first evidence that optimal magnesium status may be required for optimizing the conversion of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • It suggests that optimal magnesium status can help normalize 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels by increasing low levels and decreasing high levels.

However, this was a small study and, like any groundbreaking study, has significant limitations. For a complete discussion of the limitations and strengths of this study I refer you to the editorial (S Lin and Q Liu, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108: 1159-1161, 2018) that accompanied the study.

In summary, this study needs to be replicated by larger clinical studies with a more diverse study population. In order to provide meaningful results, those studies would need to carefully control and monitor calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D intake. There is also a need for mechanistic studies to better understand how magnesium can both increase low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and decrease high 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

However, assuming the conclusions of this study to be true, it has some interesting implications:

  • If you are taking a vitamin D supplement, you should probably make sure that you are also getting the DV (400 mg) of magnesium from diet plus supplementation.
  • If you are taking a calcium supplement, you should check that it also provides a significant amount of magnesium. If not, change supplements or make sure that you get the DV for magnesium elsewhere.
  • I am suggesting that you shoot for the DV (400 mg) of magnesium rather than reading every label and calculating the calcium to magnesium ratio. The “ideal” ratio of 2.3 to 1 is hypothetical at this point. A supplement providing the DV of both calcium and magnesium would have a calcium to magnesium ratio of 2.5, and I would not fault any manufacturer for providing you with the DV of both nutrients.
  • If you are taking high amounts of calcium, I would recommend a supplement that has a calcium to magnesium ratio of 2.5 or less.
  • If you are considering a magnesium supplement to optimize your magnesium status, you should be aware that magnesium can cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea. I would recommend a sustained release magnesium supplement.
  • Finally, whole grains and legumes are among your best dietary sources of magnesium. Forget those diets that tell you to eliminate whole food groups. They are likely to leave you magnesium-deficient.

Even if the conclusions of this study are not confirmed by subsequent studies, we need to remember that magnesium is an essential nutrient with many health benefits and that most Americans do not get enough magnesium in their diet. The recommendations I have made for optimizing magnesium status are common-sense recommendations that apply to all of us.

 

The Case For Holistic Supplementation

 

magnesium optimize vitamin d case for holistic supplementationThis study is one of many examples showing that a holistic approach to supplementation is superior to a “magic bullet” approach where you take individual nutrients to solve individual problems. For example, in the case of magnesium and vitamin D:

  • If you asked most nutrition experts and supplement manufacturers whether it is important to provide magnesium along with vitamin D, their answer would likely be “No”. Even if they are focused on bone health, they would be more likely to recommend calcium along with vitamin D than magnesium along with vitamin D.
  • If your doctor has tested your 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and recommended a vitamin D supplement, chances are they didn’t also recommend that you optimize your magnesium status.
  • Clinical studies investigating the benefits of vitamin D supplementation never ask whether magnesium intake is optimal.

That’s because most doctors and nutrition experts still think of nutrients as “magic bullets.” I cover holistic supplementation in detail in my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths.”  Other examples that make a case for holistic supplementation that I cover in my book include:

  • A study showing that omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins may work together to prevent cognitive decline. Unfortunately, most studies looking at the effect of B vitamins on cognitive decline have not considered omega-3 status and vice versa. No wonder those studies have produced inconsistent results.
  • Studies looking at the effect of calcium supplementation on loss of bone density in the elderly have often failed to include vitamin D, magnesium, and other nutrients that are needed for building healthy bone. They have also failed to include exercise, which is essential for building healthy bone. No wonder some of those studies have failed to find an effect of calcium supplementation on bone density.
  • A study reported that selenium and vitamin E by themselves might increase prostate cancer risk. Those were the headlines you might have seen. The same study showed Vitamin E and selenium together did not increase prostate cancer risk. Somehow that part of the study was never mentioned.
  • A study reported that high levels of individual B vitamins increased mortality slightly. Those were the headlines you might have seen. The same study showed that when the same B vitamins were combined in a B complex supplement, mortality decreased. Somehow that observation never made the headlines.
  • A 20-year study reported that a holistic approach to supplementation produced significantly better health outcomes.

In summary, vitamins and minerals interact with each other to produce health benefits in our bodies. Some of those interactions we know about. Others we are still learning about. When we take high doses of individual vitamins and minerals, we create potential problems.

  • We may not get the full benefit of the vitamin or mineral we are taking because some other important nutrient(s) may be missing from our diet.
  • Even worse, high doses of one vitamin or mineral may interfere with the absorption or enhance the excretion of another vitamin or mineral. That can create deficiencies.

The same principles apply to our diet. I mentioned earlier that whole grains and legumes are among the best dietary sources of magnesium. Eliminating those two foods from the diet increases our risk of becoming magnesium deficient. And, that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Any time you eliminate foods or food groups from the diet, you run the risk of creating deficiencies of nutrients, phytonutrients, specific types of fiber, and the healthy gut bacteria that use that fiber as their preferred food source.

The Bottom Line

 

A recent study suggests that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. This is one of many examples showing that a holistic approach to supplementation is superior to a “magic bullet” approach where you take individual nutrients to solve individual problems. For example, in the case of magnesium and vitamin D:

  • If you asked most nutrition experts and supplement manufacturers whether it is important to provide magnesium along with vitamin D, their answer would likely be “No.”  Even if they are focused on bone health, they would be more likely to recommend calcium along with vitamin D than magnesium along with vitamin D.
  • If your doctor has tested your 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and recommended a vitamin D supplement, chances are he or she did not also recommend that you optimize your magnesium status.
  • Clinical studies investigating the benefits of vitamin D supplementation never ask whether magnesium intake is optimal. That may be why so many of those studies have failed to find any benefit of vitamin D supplementation.

I cover holistic supplementation in detail in my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths” and provide several other examples where a holistic approach to supplementation is superior to taking individual supplements.

In summary, vitamins and minerals interact with each other to produce health benefits in our bodies. Some of those interactions we know about. Others we are still learning about. Whenever we take high doses of individual vitamins and minerals, we create potential problems.

  • We may not get the full benefit of the vitamin or mineral we are taking because some other important nutrient(s) may be missing from our diet.
  • Even worse, high doses of one vitamin or mineral may interfere with the absorption or enhance the excretion of another vitamin or mineral. That can create deficiencies.

The same principles apply to what we eat. For example, whole grains and legumes are among the best dietary sources of magnesium. Eliminating those two foods from the diet increases our risk of becoming magnesium deficient. And, that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Any time you eliminate foods or food groups from the diet, you run the risk of creating deficiencies.

For more details about the current study and what it means to you read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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