Do Calcium Supplements Increase Heart Attack Risk?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Supplements and Health

 

Calcium Confusion

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 cardiovascular-disease

Should you avoid calcium supplements? Do calcium supplements increase heart disease risk? If you’ve been reading some of the recent headlines in magazines, newspapers and current health articles, that’s exactly what you might think.

And, after years of telling us that calcium supplements may be important for bone health, even some doctors are now recommending that their patients avoid calcium supplements. So what’s the truth? What should you believe?

Calcium Confusion

While some headlines and blogs have been telling you to avoid “killer calcium” supplements at all cost, the actual literature on the subject is much more confusing. Some studies claim that taking over 1,000 mg of supplemental calcium is associated with a slight (20-24%) increase in heart attack risk (Bolland et al, BMJ, 341: c3691, 2010; Bolland et al, BMJ 342: d2040, 2011; Xiao et al, JAMA Internal Medicine, 173: 639-646, 2013). Other studies find no association between supplemental calcium intake and heart attack risk or decreased heart attack risk (Lansetmo et al, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 98: 3010-3018, 2013; Wang et al, Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, 12:105-116, 2012).

Why the confusion? It turns out that most of these studies had some significant limitations – particularly the studies reporting increased heart attack risk. For example:

  • Some studies were too small or the follow-up was too short. As a consequence the total number of cardiovascular deaths was so small that it was difficult to have confidence in small differences between the group supplementing with calcium and the one that was not supplementing.
  • Some of the papers represented a re-analysis of the data from studies that were actually designed to measure whether calcium supplements decreased risk of bone fracture, not whether they increased the risk of cardiovascular death. That is a concern because it means that cardiovascular deaths were not systematically recorded at the time the studies were performed.

And when studies like that are poorly designed, you end up with some pretty bizarre findings. For example:

  • One study reported that calcium supplementation increased the risk of heart attack only in women who were using no calcium supplements prior to the study. A second study by the same authors reported that calcium supplementation increased heart attack risk only women who were taking calcium supplements prior to the study. Obviously, both studies couldn’t be correct.
  • One study has reported that calcium supplementation increases heart attack risk in women, but not in men. Another study reports that calcium supplementation increases heart attack risk in men, but not in women. A third study claims that calcium supplementation reduces cardiovascular death in women, but not in men. Again, all of those studies can’t be true.

Are you confused yet? If so, I have good news for you. The definitive study on calcium supplements and heart attack risk in humans has just been published.

 

Do Calcium Supplements Increase Heart Attack Risk?

A group of scientists from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and Harvard University analyzed the relationship between supplemental calcium use and cardiovascular disease in 74,245 women with no previous history of heart disease who were enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study (Paik et al, Osteoporosis International, doi: 10.1007/s00198-014-2732-2, 2014). This was a very well designed study that avoided the flaws of the previous studies. For example:

  • There were a large number of women in the study (74,245) and a long follow-up (24 years). As a consequence there were a large number of adverse cardiovascular events (2,709 deaths and 1,856 strokes). This allowed for a very precise statistical comparison of calcium supplement users and non-users.
  • This study was designed to measure cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular deaths
  • This study was also designed to measure calcium intake. In fact, calcium intake was measured every 4 years.

The results were pretty clear cut:

  • Women taking >1,000 mg of supplemental calcium/day had an 18% decrease in cardiovascular deaths.
  • Women taking >1,000 mg of supplemental calcium/day had a 29% decrease in cardiovascular disease.
  • When they looked at total calcium intake (dietary and supplemental) women consuming >2,000 mg/day had an 18% decrease in cardiovascular deaths compared to women consuming <500 mg/day (about the average dietary intake for American women).
  • It didn’t make any difference whether the women were at high or low risk of heart disease (smokers versus non-smokers, high blood pressure versus normal blood pressure, high cholesterol versus normal cholesterol, heart healthy diet or poor diet, pre- or post-menopause, etc)
  • It also didn’t make any difference if the women started supplementing with calcium during the last 4 years of the study or had been supplementing with calcium for 24 years. The results were essentially the same.

 

The Bottom Line

1)     You can ignore the “Killer Calcium” headlines and the warnings that taking calcium supplements will increase your risk of heart disease. The definitive study for women has just been published, and it shows that >1,000 mg/day of supplemental calcium reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease by 29% and cardiovascular death (primarily heart attacks) by 18%.

2)     The definitive study for men has not yet been published, but it is likely that the results will be similar to those for women.

3)     On the other hand, there is clear evidence that calcium intake in the 1000 to 1300 mg per day range (the current RDA recommendations) decreases the risk of osteoporosis, and osteoporosis can significantly decrease quality of life and even lead to increased mortality. Most people aren’t getting enough calcium in their diet. For these people appropriate calcium supplementation is clearly advantageous.

4)     Finally, as I discuss in my book “The Myths of the Naysayers” (available for free to subscribers of “Health Tips From the Professor”), some poorly designed calcium supplements could indeed have the potential to increase heart disease risk. My recommendation is to make sure that your calcium supplement contains 800 to 1200 IU of vitamin D per day plus RDA levels of the other nutrients needed for bone formation (vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese).

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

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Comments (4)

  • Helen

    |

    Thank you for this professional and timely information you provide. Most appreciative of your work and effort.

    How does one get your book re: Naysayers?

    HTG

    Reply

    • Dr. Steve Chaney

      |

      Dear Helen,

      When you go to https://www.healthtipsfromtheprofessor.com and register to receive my health tips on a weekly basis you will receive an email with instructions on how to receive your free Naysayers eBook.

      Dr. Chaney

      Reply

  • sharry zacharia

    |

    Thank you for clearing the confusion on CA intake and heart disease.

    Reply

  • Mary Ahrens

    |

    thank you Dr. Chaney for simplifying the results for each of these studies! It’s incredibly helpful!

    Reply

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Latest Article

Headache Relief By Treating Your Shoulder

Posted June 18, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

A Headache Remedy Can be Treating Your Shoulder

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT –The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

 

When you experience the debilitating effects of headache pain, you just want headache relief.

headache relief from painYour head throbs. It’s hard to think. It’s hard to enjoy life.

What should you do?

  • You could take Tylenol or some other drug, but that offers temporary relief at best.
  • You could see a chiropractor, but it may take multiple visits to correct your problem.
  • You could get a massage, but the headache will probably come back.

What you really want is a natural protocol you can use to make the headache go away whenever it occurs. There is such a protocol. It’s called muscular therapy, and I teach people how to perform it on themselves whenever a headache or joint pain occurs.

 

What Is The Difference Between Massage And Muscular Therapy?

There is a difference between massage and muscular therapy as a headache remedy, and both are worthwhile.  Massage is great for moving the fluids (like blood and lymph) through your body and getting muscles to relax. It’s perfect if you’re under stress and you feel like you’re going to explode.  A good massage therapist can have a positive impact on your nervous system and blood pressure, and you’ll come out walking on air.

Muscular therapy, the way I do it anyway, is more focused than it is general.  You’ve heard about spasms, but most people can’t visualize a spasm, so they ignore the term. You probably have an idea that a spasm may be painful, and it isn’t a great thing to have, but what is a spasm?

What is a Spasm

headache relief muscle knotsI explain it as a knot in the muscle.  Through some very complicated physiology (that none of us need to know about) the muscle forms a knot in the thick part of the muscle, and it’s putting a strain on the two ends.

Both ends are attached to a bone, so the pressure causes a strain on the end points and you have pain at the bone.  Most of the time the end points are just after the muscle crosses over a joint, so you end up with joint pain.

 

Too often people think this is arthritis and they are stuck suffering or taking strong drugs to mask the pain.  But in the majority of cases it’s not arthritis, it’s just tight muscles pulling on the bones of the joint and preventing them from moving freely.

But, all you need is to know where the knot (spasm) is, and then apply direct pressure on it.  Hold the pressure for 30 seconds or so, and then let go.  Keep repeating this until it doesn’t hurt anymore.

Headache Relief

headache relief shoulderLet’s say you have headache pain.  There are so many muscles that impact headaches that it would take a book (like my book: “Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living”) to discuss each of them.  So, let’s just look at one muscle, the Levator Scapulae.

The Levator Scapulae is responsible for lifting your shoulder up.  In fact, the nickname for the Levator Scapulae is “the shrug muscle.” But look at this graphic and you’ll see where the knots form (the round red circles) and where you feel the pain (the red shaded areas).

You may not think to press on your lower neck/shoulder when you feel headache pain.  This muscle also causes the pain you feel in the middle of your back, between your shoulder blades.

 

And self-treatment is so easy!

 

headache relief shoulder muscle workYou can put your opposite thumb into the front of your shoulder as shown in this picture, and your fingers in the back of the muscle. Then squeeze your thumb and fingers so they pinch the entire muscle.

 

headache relief shoulder muscle pressure using wallOr you can put the perfect ball on the very top of your shoulder and then lean into the corner of a wall as shown in this picture.

 

What you are doing is forcing the acid (as in Lactic Acid) out of the muscle fiber so blood can fill the void and heal the muscle fiber.  As you do this you are untying the knot and the pressure is removed from the joint. In most cases the joint can now move more freely and without pain.

All the self-treatments in my book are just this easy!

Most people have significant pain relief, and I am happy to say many get total and permanent pain relief.  Try it yourself, self-treatment is easy.  The worst thing that can happen is nothing, and the best thing that can happen is regaining normalcy.

Why stay in pain when it’s so easy to find the muscular source of the problem and eliminate it?

pain free living book coverGet Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living . It is filled with over 100 pictures and descriptions proven to show you how to find and self-treat muscle spasms from head to foot!

Join the 1000’s of people worldwide who have discovered that tight muscles were the true source of pains they thought were from arthritis, fibromyalgia, and other serious conditions.  You have nothing to lose, and everything to gain by releasing tight muscles.

Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living is your step-by-step guide to pain relief!

 

Wishing you well,

 

Julie Donnelly

Julie Donnelly

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

About The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

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