Do Diets Work?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Food and Health, Obesity

dietingObesity in America?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

If you are like most Americans, you are either overweight yourself or have close friends and family who are overweight. That’s because 69% of Americans are currently overweight, and 36% of us are obese. Worldwide the latest estimates are that 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese.

A new report, How The World Could Better Fight Obesity,  estimates that obesity is a $2 trillion drain on the world’s economy. That is equivalent to the global cost of war & terrorism and of smoking – and is double the global costs of alcoholism and global warming!

If you are like most Americans you have tried a number of diets over the years. All of them promised that they had the “secret” to permanent weight loss. You lost some weight initially, but here you are a few years later weighing as much as ever.

You are probably beginning to wonder whether any diets work long term. According to the latest study, the answer may just be “no”.

Really, Do Diets Work?

This study (Atallah et al, Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 7: 815-827, 2014) was a systemmatic review of all of the randomized controlled studies of the four most popular diet plans – Weight Watchers, Akins, Zone and South Beach.

In case, you are unfamiliar with these diets, here is their philosophy:

  • Weight watchers is a food, physical activity and behavior modification plan that utilizes a point system to control calorie intake and features weekly group sessions.
  •  Atkins is based on very low carbohydrate intake, with unlimited fat and protein consumption.
  •  South Beach is relatively low carbohydrate, high protein diet that focuses on low-glycemic index carbohydrates, lean proteins, and mono- and polyunsaturated fats.
  • Zone is a low carbohydrate diet that focuses on low-glycemic load carbohydrates, low-fat proteins and small amounts of good fats.

The investigators restricted their analysis to studies that were greater than 4 weeks in duration and either compared the diets to “usual care” or to each other. (The term usual care was not defined, but most likely refers to a physician giving the advice to eat less and exercise more).

Twenty six studies met their inclusion criteria. Fourteen of those studies were short-term (< 12 months) and 12 were long-term (>12 months). Of the long-term studies, 10 compared individual diet plans to usual care and 2 were head-to-head comparisons between the diet plans (1 of Atkins vs Weight Watchers vs Zone and 1 of Weight Watchers vs Zone vs control). The majority of participants in these studies were young, white, obese women. Their average age was 45 years and their average weight at the beginning of the studies was 200 pounds.

What Did This Study Show?

If you have struggled with your weight in the past, you probably won’t be surprised by the result of the study.

  •  Short-term weight loss was similar for Atkins, Weight Watchers and Zone in the two head-to-head studies.
  •  At 12 months, the 10 studies comparing individual diets to usual care (physician’s advice to eat less and exercise more) showed that only Weight Watchers was slightly more effective than usual care (physician’s advice to lose weight). The average weight loss at 12 months was 10 pounds for Weight Watchers and 7 pounds for usual care. That is a 3 pound difference for all of the additional effort and expense of Weight Watchers!
  • When they looked at the two head-to-head studies at 12 months, there was no significant differences between the diets. Average weight loss in these studies was 7 pounds for Weight Watchers, 7 pounds for Atkins, 5 pounds for Zone and 5 pounds for usual care. There was only one study comparing the South Beach diets with usual care. It was a study comparing the results with severely obese patients following gastric bypass surgery, and it also found no difference between the diet program and usual care. Based on hype about these diets, you were probably expecting more than a 5 to 7 pound weight loss 12 months later!
  •  By 24 months 30-40% of the weight had been regained for the Atkins and Weight Watchers diets, which was comparable to the results for patients who were just told to eat less and exercise more. Not only was the weight loss modest, it also did not appear to be permanent.
  •  Finally, many of the studies included in this review also looked at improvement in other health parameters such as HDL cholesterol levels, LDL cholesterol levels, triglycerides, blood pressure and blood sugar control. The Atkins diet gave slightly better results with HDL levels, triglyceride levels and blood pressure in the short-term studies, but there was no significant differences for any of these parameters in the long-term head-to-head studies. None of the diets were any healthier than the others.

The investigators concluded: “Our results suggest that all 4 diets are modestly efficacious for short-term weight loss, but that these benefits are not sustained long-term.

A similar study in 2005 compared the Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig and LA Weight Loss diets (Tsai et al, Annals of Internal Medicine, 142: 56-66, 2005) and concluded “…the evidence to support the use of major commercial and self-help weight loss programs is suboptimal”.

weight loss and obesityA Weight Loss Diet That Actually Works?

My personal recommendation for the initial weight loss is a high protein diet – one that provides about 30% of calories from healthy protein and moderate amounts of healthy carbohydrates and healthy fats. The protein should be high enough quality so that it provides 10-12 gram of the essential amino acid leucine because leucine specifically stimulates muscle growth. The combination of high protein and leucine preserves muscle mass while you are losing weight. That is important because it keeps your metabolic rate high without dangerous herbs or stimulants.

However, the high protein, high leucine diet is still just a diet. It is an excellent choice for the initial weight loss, but what about long-term weight control?

The authors of this study said: “Comprehensive lifestyle interventions aimed at curbing both adult and childhood obesity are urgently needed. Interventions that include dietary, behavioral and exercise components…may be better suited to [solve] the obesity epidemic.” I agree.

The Bottom Line:

Your suspicions are correct. Diets don’t work!

A recent systematic review of 26 randomized controlled clinical trials of the Weight Watchers, Atkins, Zone & South Beach diets compared to the usual standard of care (recommendations to eat less and exercise more) concluded:

1) Contrary to what the advertisements promise, after 12 months all four diets gave comparable and very modest (5-7 pounds) total weight loss. The results with the diets were not significantly different than for patients who were simply told to eat less and exercise more.

2) By 24 months 30-40% of the weight had already been regained.

3) A previous systematic review of the Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, and LA Weight Loss diet programs came to a similar conclusion.

4) My personal recommendation for the initial weight loss is a diet that is high in protein and the amino acid leucine because that type of diet preserves muscle mass.

5) For permanent weight control the authors of the recent systematic review recommended comprehensive lifestyle interventions that include permanent changes in diet, behavior and exercise. I agree. Diets never work long term – lifestyle change does!

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Healthy Thanksgiving

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Healthy Lifestyle

The Holidays Don’t Have To Be Unhealthy

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

healthy thanksgivingWhile “Healthy Thanksgiving” doesn’t quite have the appeal of the more familiar “Happy Thanksgiving” greeting, I used it here to make the point that Thanksgiving dinner (and many other holiday meals) doesn’t have to be an unhealthy affair.

After all, there is a lot to like about the ingredients in Thanksgiving dinner. Turkey can be a healthy, low- fat meat, if prepared correctly. Sweet potatoes, yams, winter squash and pumpkin are all loaded with vitamin A and other important nutrients. And cranberries are a nutrition powerhouse.
Healthy Thanksgiving

Here are some healthy Thanksgiving ideas:

1) Skip the basting. Choose a plain bird and cook in a bag to seal in the moisture. Remove the skin before serving.

2) Refrigerate the turkey juices and skim off the hardened fat before making gravy and use a gravy cup that pours from the bottom to minimize fat.

3) Use ingredients like whole wheat bread, vegetables, fruits (cranberries, raisins, dates or apples), nuts and your favorite spices for the stuffing and bake it in the oven rather than in the turkey.

4) Serve your sweet potatoes or yams baked rather than candied and let your guests add butter to taste.

5) Use skim milk or buttermilk rather than whole milk and skip the butter for your mashed potatoes.

6) Give your meal gourmet appeal by cooking your green vegetables with garlic, nuts and herbs rather than creamy or fat-laden sauces.

7) Don’t serve the meal on your largest plates. By using smaller plates you ensure smaller portion size and even that second helping isn’t quite so damaging.

8) Use the Shaklee 180 meal replacement products for one or more meals the day before and/or after Thanksgiving so that your total caloric intake over the three day period is not excessive.

By now you have the idea. There are lots of little things that you can do to make your Thanksgiving dinner one that your waist and your heart will thank you for. Bon Appetit and have a Happy, Healthy Thanksgiving!

The Bottom Line

• If you make healthy food choices and choose your portion sizes wisely, you can make this a Healthy Thanksgiving as well as a Happy Thanksgiving.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Are There Health Benefits of Beetroot Juice for Athletes?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Exercise, Food and Health

Should You Add Beetroot Juice To Your Training Diet?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

health benefits of beetroot juiceWhen I saw the headline “Beetroot Juice May Boost Aerobic Fitness For Swimmers” I did a double take. Could something as simple as eating more beets actually improve exercise performance? Are there real health benefits of beetroot juice for athletes?  So I looked up recent papers on the topic.  But, before I review those I should give you a little science behind the idea that beetroot juice might affect performance.

The Science Behind Beetroot Juice And Exercise

Nitric oxide is a colorless, odorless gas that serves as an important signaling molecule in the human body. Among its many beneficial effects is increased blood flow to muscle. This increased blood flow appears to be preferentially distributed to the type 2 muscle fibers which support moderate to high intensity exercise. Thus, nutrients that enhance nitric oxide levels might be expected to improve moderate to high intensity exercise.

There are two naturally occurring pathways for producing nitric oxide in the body. The first pathway utilizes arginine, an amino acid found in dietary protein. The second pathway utilizes nitrates, which are found in fruits and vegetables. The best dietary sources of nitrates are beetroot, spinach and other leafy green vegetables.

Arginine has been widely used in sports supplements for some time to enhance performance. However, clinical studies on arginine have been mixed, with some showing small enhancements in performance and others showing no significant effect. Most experts now think that the benefits of arginine are primarily seen with untrained or moderately trained athletes (people like you and me) – not for highly trained or elite athletes.

It is logical that natural sources of nitrates, such as beetroot juice, would have a similar beneficial effect on exercise, but it is only in the last couple of years that scientists have started to evaluate that possibility. I looked up six recent publications for this review.

Does Beetroot Juice Improve Exercise Performance?

Study # 1: In this study (Bailey et al, J. Appl. Physiol., 107: 1144-1155, 2009) untrained men (aged 19-38) were given beetroot juice or a placebo for 6 days and then put through a series moderate-intensity and severe-intensity step exercise tests on days 4-6. The amount of oxygen required to support the moderate intensity exercise was decreased by 19% in the beetroot juice group. For severe intensity exercise, the amount of oxygen needed to support the exercise was decreased by 23% and the time to exhaustion was increased by 16% in the beetroot juice group. Those effects were statistically significant.

Study # 2: In this study (Kelly et al, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 304: R73-83, 2013) untrained older adults (aged 60-70) were given beetroot juice or a placebo for 3 days and then put through a treadmill exercise test. Resting blood pressure and oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise were significantly improved in the beetroot group.

Study # 3: In this study (Breese et al, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 305: R1441-14505, 2013) physically active subjects were given beetroot juice or a placebo for 6 days and then put through a double step exercise protocol involving a transition from stationary to moderate intensity exercise followed immediately by a transition from moderate intensity to severe intensity exercise. No significant differences were observed between the beetroot juice group and the placebo group during the transition from stationary to moderate intensity exercise. However, for the transition from moderate intensity to high intensity exercise both efficiency of oxygen utilization and endurance were increased by 22% in the beetroot juice group.

does beetroot juice improve exercise performance

Study # 4: In this study (Pinna et al, Nutrients, 6: 605-615, 2014) moderately trained male master swimmers were given beetroot juice for 6 days. Swimming tests were conducted at the beginning and end of the 6 day period. After 6 days of beetroot juice supplementation, the workload was increased by 6% and the energy cost was decreased by 12% when the swimmers were performing at their maximal capacity.

Studies # 5 & 6: These studies (Lanceley et al, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47: doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.8; Hoon et al, Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform., 9: 615-620, 2014) were both done with highly trained athletes and no significant improvement in performance was observed. This is fully consistent with previous studies utilizing arginine supplements.

In short, these studies suggest that beetroot juice is similar to arginine supplements in that:

  • It improves exercise performance at moderate to severe exercise levels, but not at low exercise levels.
  • It improves exercise performance for untrained or moderately trained athletes, but not for highly trained athletes.
  • The effects are modest. However, you should keep in mind that even a 20% increase in endurance during high intensity exercise can result in a significant incremental increase in muscle mass if the exercise is repeated on a regular basis.

What Are The Strengths & Weaknesses Of These Studies?

Strengths: The strengths of these studies are:

  • Most of the studies were double-blind, placebo controlled studies
  • The studies were internally consistent and were consistent with previous studies done with arginine supplements.

Weaknesses: The weaknesses of these studies are:

  • The studies were all very small and were of short duration. Larger, longer term studies are needed to validate the results of these studies.

So, are there health benefits of beetroot juice for athletes?

The Bottom Line:

  1. Nitrates and arginine are both converted to nitric oxide in the body, so it is plausible that they will have similar effects.
  1. Arginine supplements have been around for years and appear to have a modest affect on exercise performance with untrained and moderately trained athletes, but not with highly trained athletes. This is most likely because one of the effects of training is to increase blood supply to the muscles. Thus, highly trained athletes already have enhanced blood flow to the muscles, and the effect of arginine supplementation on blood flow is less noticeable.
  1. Nitrate supplements are just starting to be evaluated for their effects on exercise performance. Most of the research so far has been with beetroot juice, but the results should be similar for any naturally sourced nitrate supplement.
  1. The clinical studies published so far suggest that nitrate supplements are similar to arginine supplements in that they have a modest effect on high intensity exercise in untrained and moderate trained athletes (people like most of us). They appear to have little or no effect for highly trained athletes. Thus, the effect of nitrate supplements on exercise appears to be very similar to the effect of arginine supplements on exercise.
  1. Most of the studies performed to date have been small, short duration studies. They need to be validated by larger, longer term studies.
  1. If the effects of nitrate supplementation published to date are accurate they should be most beneficial for weight training and high intensity exercise because even modest increases in exercise endurance can result in an incremental increase in muscle mass and strength over time.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Soy and Breast Cancer

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Food and Health, Nutritiion

soy and breast cancerThe Soy Controversy

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

 

Soy and breast cancer: the wars are heating up again. You may have seen the recent headlines saying: “Soy protein found to speed the growth of breast cancer!” “Eating soy may turn on genes linked to [breast] cancer growth!” “Women with breast cancer should avoid high soy diets!” It all sounds pretty scary.

If this is true, it is big news. In recent years the consensus in the scientific community has been that soy is not harmful for women with breast cancer, and that it might even be beneficial. However, some skeptics have never accepted that consensus view. Those skeptics are once again claiming that soy protein may be risky for women with breast cancer.

Let’s look at the study behind the recent headlines and see if it is compelling enough to challenge the prevailing consensus on the safety of soy for women with breast cancer.

Does Soy Protein Turn On Breast Cancer Growth Genes?

This study (Shike et al, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Sep 4 2014, doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju 189) looked at 140 women (average age 56) with invasive breast cancer. They were randomly divided into two groups of 70 and either given soy protein or a placebo between the initial biopsy and the time that surgery was performed to remove the tumor (a period of 7 to 30 days). A second biopsy was obtained at the time of surgery.

The activity of a number of genes associated with breast cancer survival was measured in the two biopsy samples. The observation that made the headlines was:

  • For some of the women in the study the activity of several genes associated with breast cancer growth and survival was increased in the group consuming soy protein compared to the placebo group. The authors concluded: “These data raise concern that soy may exert a stimulatory effect on breast cancer in a subset of women.”

What Are The Limitations Of The Study?

The authors acknowledged the many limitations of the study, but the press has largely ignored them.

  • The increased activity of the cancer growth genes was only seen in 20% of the women studied. For 80% of the women studied soy protein consumption had no effect on the activity of genes associated with breast cancer growth and survival.
  • This effect was only seen for some of the genes associated with breast cancer growth and survival. Other breast cancer growth genes were not affected in any of the women enrolled in the study. The authors conceded that it was unknown whether these limited genetic changes would have any effect on tumor growth and survival.
  • There was no effect of soy consumption on actual tumor growth in any of the women studied.
  • This was a very short term study so it is not known whether these changes in gene expression would have continued if soy supplementation were continued for a longer period of time. There are numerous examples in the literature of initial changes in gene expression in response to a radical change in diet that disappear once the body becomes accustomed to the new diet.
  • There is absolutely no way of knowing if the observed changes in gene expression would actually affect clinical outcomes such as survival, response to chemotherapy or tumor recurrence.

Should Women With Breast Cancer Avoid Soy?breast cancer prevention

Even with all of the limitations listed above, if this were the only study to test the soy-breast cancer hypothesis, I and most other experts would probably be warning women with breast cancer to be very cautious about consuming soy.

However, as I discussed in a previous “Health Tips From the Professor” (https://healthtipsfromtheprofessor.com/soy-and-breast-cancer-recurrence/) at least five clinical studies have been published on the effects of soy consumption on the recurrence of breast cancer in women who are breast cancer survivors, both in Chinese and American populations. The studies have shown either no effect of soy on breast cancer recurrence or a protective effect. None of them have shown any detrimental effects of soy consumption by breast cancer survivors.

A meta-analysis of all 5 studies was published last year (Chi et al, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev., 14: 2407-2412, 2013). This study combined the data from 11,206 breast cancer survivors in the US and China. Those with the highest soy consumption had a 23% decrease in recurrence and a 15% decrease in mortality from breast cancer.

Another meta-analysis of 18 clinical studies found that soy slightly decreases the risk of developing breast cancer in the first place (J Natl Cancer Inst, 98: 459-471, 2006). To date there is absolutely no clinical evidence that soy increases the risk of breast cancer.

The Bottom Line

What does this mean for you if you are a woman with breast cancer, a breast cancer survivor or someone who is concerned about your risk of developing breast cancer?

  1. The study that has generated the recent headlines has so many limitations that I would not recommend any changes in soy consumption at present. It raises an interesting hypothesis that requires further study and validation. If this hypothesis holds up it may result in changes in dietary recommendations for a very small subset of women with invasive breast cancer.
  1. There are many reasons to include soy protein foods as part of a healthy diet. Soy foods are one of the highest quality vegetable protein sources and provide a great alternative to many of the high fat, high cholesterol animal proteins in the American diet.
  1. I personally feel that these studies are clear cut enough that women who are concerned about their breast cancer risk, women with breast cancer, and breast cancer survivors no longer need to fear soy protein as part of a healthy diet.
  1. The responsible websites agree with this assessment. For example, WebMD and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) both say that breast cancer survivors need no longer worry about eating moderate amounts of soy foods.
  1. The irresponsible websites (I won’t name names, but you know who they are) are still warning breast cancer survivors to avoid soy completely. They are citing the latest study, with all of its limitations, as proof that they were right all along. As a scientist I really have a problem with people who are unwilling to change their opinions in the face of overwhelming scientific evidence to the contrary.
  1. Finally, I want to emphasize that the published studies merely show that soy does not increase the risk of breast cancer and is safe to use for breast cancer survivors. None of those studies suggest that soy is an effective treatment for breast cancer. The protective effects of soy are modest at best. If you have breast cancer, consult with your physician about the best treatment options for you.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Is Alkaline Water Better For You?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Health Current Events, Healthy Lifestyle

Facts About Water

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

is alkaline water better for youIs alkaline water better for you?  It’s bad enough that some people are paying a premium price for bottled water that isn’t required to be any better than tap water, but the latest fads appear to be things like “alkaline” water and “ionized” water. And these “super” waters come with a really hefty price tag.

If you believed the hype behind these products, you would think that they are revolutionary advances that will cure all sorts of ills. But the truth is these enticing claims are completely bogus. They contradict the basic laws of chemistry and biochemistry.

More importantly, there are no good quality clinical studies showing that they work!

What Is Alkaline Water?

Let’s start with alkaline water – but first a bit of background information.

Pure water has a pH of around 7, which is neutral. However, if the water is exposed to air for any length of time it picks up CO2 from the atmosphere. The CO2 dissolves in the water and is converted to carbonic acid making most sources of pure water slightly acidic.

On the other hand, if metal salts are dissolved in the water it generally becomes slightly alkaline.

Is Alkaline Water Better For You?

Here are some questions you might ask when deciphering if alkaline water is better for you than plain water:

1) What Are the Benefits of Drinking Alkaline Water?

In the 1930s Otto Warburg, one of the founders of modern biochemistry, showed that cancer cells were much more dependent on glucose (blood sugar) as an energy source than were most other cells in the body and that cancer cells metabolized glucose in a way that made the cancer cells very acidic.

That information languished for many years, but interest in the “Warburg Hypothesis” has been revived in recent years by studies showing that cancer cells can be selectively killed by limiting their source of glucose.

So, what are the benefits of drinking alkaline water?  In theory, making the body more alkaline would also slow the growth of the cancer cells. There is some evidence to support that hypothesis, but the evidence is still relatively weak.

It is the same with the other proposed health benefits of alkalinizing the body. There is some evidence in the literature, but it is not yet convincing. As a scientist I’m keeping an open mind, but I’m not ready to when-pigs-fly“bet the farm” on it.

2) Can Alkaline Water Alkalinize the Body?

Here the answer is a clear cut NO! In fact, this hypothesis wins my “Flying Pig” award for the month!

The body has a very strong buffer system and some elaborate metabolic controls to maintain a near-constant neutral pH. More importantly, water is such a weak buffer that it has almost no effect on body pH!

Alkaline Foods

If you really want to alkalinize your body you can do that by eating more of the alkaline foods (most fruits, including citrus fruits, and most vegetables, peas, beans, lentils, seeds & nuts) and less of the acidic foods (grains, especially refined grains, meat, especially red meat, fish, poultry and eggs).

I’ve seen some experts recommend 60% alkaline foods and 40% acidic foods. I can’t vouch for the validity of that recommendation in terms of the benefits of alkalinizing the body, but there are lots of other good reasons to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables and less red meat and refined carbohydrates.

Is Ionized Water Beneficial?

Ionized water is an even sillier concept from a chemical point of view.

It is very difficult to ionize pure water and the ions that you do create quickly recombine to give you pure water again without any change in pH or physical properties.

If you add sodium chloride (table salt) to the water you can get electrolysis that creates a slightly alkaline pH at one electrode and a slightly acidic pH at the other electrode.

However, as soon as you turn off the current, these pH changes rapidly disappear. Even if you were somehow able to capture some of the alkaline or acidic water remember that water alone has almost no effect on body pH.

Never Underestimate The Placebo Effect

But, what about all of those glowing testimonials that you have heard?

You need to remember that the placebo effect is near 50% when it comes to pain or a feeling of well being.

You can’t repeal the laws of chemistry and biochemistry. Water is, after all, just water!

Good science trumps good testimonials any day.  Never, never underestimate the placebo effect.

The Bottom Line

Don’t waste your money on alkaline water or ionized water. Water is a very poor buffer and has almost no effect on the pH of our bodies.

There may be some health benefits to keeping our bodies in a more alkaline state, but the best way to do that is to eat more alkaline foods and less acid foods (http://www.webmd.com/diet/alkaline-diets).

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Is There Hope for Alzheimer’s

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Health Current Events, Nutritiion, Vitamins and Health

Preventing Cognitive Decline As We Age

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 alzheimer's

As we age nothing is more terrifying than the word Alzheimer’s. For most of us the ultimate irony would be to spend a lifetime taking good care of our body, only to lose our mind. From time to time there are encouraging reports about the potential of low fat diets, diets rich in fruits and vegetables, B vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, various herbs, and other natural approaches that might slow cognitive decline as we age.

Inevitably, it seems, those hopes are dashed by subsequent meta-analyses supposedly showing that each of those approaches is worthless. That wouldn’t be so bad if there were effective medications to slow cognitive decline and prevent Alzheimer’s, but there aren’t. The Alzheimer’s drugs on the market today simply have not been shown to be effective.

But, what if all of these studies were missing the mark by focusing on individual interventions? Perhaps we should be focusing a holistic approach instead.

 

The Power of Holistic Approaches

One of the examples of the power of a holistic approach that I love to use, because it really made an impression on me as a young scientist, occurred at an International Cancer Symposium I attended more than 30 years ago.

I attended a session in which an internally renowned expert was giving his talk on colon cancer. He said, “I can show you, unequivocally, that colon cancer risk is significantly decreased by a lifestyle that includes a high-fiber diet, a low-fat diet, adequate calcium, adequate B-vitamins, exercise and weight control. But I can’t show you that any one of them, by themselves, is effective.”

The question that came to me as I heard him speak was: “What’s the message that a responsible scientist or responsible health professional should be giving to their patients or the people that they’re advising?” You’ve heard experts saying: “Don’t worry about the fat” “Don’t worry about calcium.” “Don’t worry about B-vitamins.” “Don’t worry about fiber.” “None of them can be shown to decrease the risk of colon cancer.”

Is that the message that we should be giving people? Or should we really be saying what that doctor said many years ago – a lifestyle that includes all of those things significantly decreases the risk of colon cancer?

What about Alzheimer’s and cognitive decline? Could a holistic approach have an impact here as well?

 

Is There Hope For Alzheimer’s?

preventing-cognitive-declineA study performed by Dr. Miia Kivipelto and colleagues at the Karolinska Insitute in Sweden and the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Helsinki, Finland suggests that a holistic approach may, in fact, be able to slow cognitive decline in older people.

Previous studies had suggested that exercise, a good diet, socialization and memory training might slow cognitive decline in the elderly, but, like all other individual interventions, the benefits of these interventions were not reproducible. Dr. Kivipelto and colleagues designed a clinical study that combined all of these interventions into a single holistic approach.

They started with 1,260 healthy adults aged 60-77 from Sweden and Finland and divided them into two groups. One group was enrolled in a holistic program involving exercise, a healthy diet, socialization and memory training. This group was closely monitored for compliance. The other group was just given general health advice – not unlike the advice you might expect to receive from your doctor.

Each group was given a memory test at the beginning of the study and a second memory test two years later. Both groups scored about the same on the first memory test. However, the group enrolled in the holistic program did considerably better on the second memory test than the control group who had just been given general health advice.

One of the lead investigators was quoted as saying: “These findings show that prevention is possible, and it may be good to start early [before the signs of cognitive decline become evident]. With so many negative trials of Alzheimer’s drugs reportedly lately, it’s good that we may have something that everyone can do now to lower their risk [of cognitive decline].”

 

Limitations of the Study

There are two big caveats for this study.

1)     The study was too short to assess the effectiveness of this approach at reducing Alzheimer’s. The investigators plan to continue the study for 7 years. They hope that enough participants will have developed Alzheimer’s by then so they can accurately assess whether this approach is as effective at preventing Alzheimer’s as it is at preventing cognitive decline.

2)     This study was recently presented at an Alzheimer’s Association International Conference. It has not yet undergone the rigorous peer review required for publication. Once the study has been published I will give you an update.

 

The Bottom Line

1)     It has been very difficult to prove that individual interventions, whether they are natural or pharmaceutical, are effective at preventing cognitive decline and the onset of Alzheimer’s as we age.

2)    However, a recent study suggests that a holistic approach that includes exercise, optimal nutrition, socialization and memory training may be effective at preventing cognitive decline in older adults.

3)     Based on previously published individual studies, optimal nutrition probably includes:

  • A diet low in fat, especially saturated fat and trans fats
  • A diet with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Extra B vitamins, especially with high risk populations
  • Extra omega-3 fatty acids

4)     Although not mentioned in this study, maintaining proper body weight is also an important part of a holistic approach to reducing the risk of cognitive decline. In a previous “Health Tips From the Professor” I shared data showing that obesity alone can cause a 3-fold increase in the risk of developing dementia.

5)    The take home message should not be that each of the natural interventions is ineffective at preventing cognitive decline as we age. Rather, the message should be that a holistic approach that combines all of the natural interventions may be effective at preventing cognitive decline.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Nitric Oxide Benefits and Side Effects

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Food and Health, Nutritiion, Supplements and Health

Reverse Heart Disease?reverse-heart-disease

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Nitric oxide has had a meteoric rise from obscurity to fame in just a few short years. It’s an amazing story. After all, nitric oxide is a colorless, odorless gas. Who could have known it was destined for greatness? In this article, we will discuss nitric oxide benefits and side effects.

Its rise to fame started in the 1980’s when scientists from several universities discovered that nitric oxide was an important regulator of numerous physiological processes. Just a few years later in 1992 Science magazine named it “Molecule of the Year”, a very prestigious honor. And, in 1998 three of its co-discoverers received the Nobel Prize for their ground-breaking research.

The Benefits of Nitric Oxide

Proven Benefits

Perhaps the most important benefit of nitric oxide is its role in maintaining the health of the endothelial cells that form the inner lining of our blood vessels. Nitric oxide reduces:

  • Platelet aggregation
  • Damage & inflammation of the endothelial cells
  • Oxidation of LDL cholesterol
  • Growth of smooth muscle cells.

This is important because these are the very physiological processes that, if left unchecked, can lead to atherosclerosis and disease of the cardiovascular system (Davignon and Ganz, Circulation, 109: 1127-1132, 2004; Tousoulis et al, Current Vascular Pharmacology, 10: 4-18, 2012).

cardiovascular-system

However, the effect of nitric oxide that has gotten the most attention is its ability to relax the smooth muscle cells that surround our blood vessels. That leads to increased blood flow, which in turn decreases blood pressure, relieves angina, and even prevents erectile dysfunction (Davignon and Ganz, Circulation, 109: 1127-1132, 2004; Tousoulis et al, Current Vascular Pharmacology, 10: 4-18, 2012).

Possible Benefits

Many people with atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension (high blood pressure) have low nitric oxide levels. It’s not known whether this is a cause or a result of these diseases, but low nitric oxide levels certainly could contribute to the progression and health consequences of all three diseases. We already know that increasing nitric oxide levels can reduce high blood pressure. It is not yet known whether increasing nitric oxide levels could reduce or reverse heart disease and the effects of diabetes, but this is an area of active research.

Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter and is thought to play a critical role in memory and learning. It also plays a critical role in immune function. In addition, it enhances the metabolic activity of mitochondria, which could enhance cellular metabolism. The physiological significance of these observations is unknown, but this is another area of active research

Finally, because nitric oxide stimulates blood flow, which should increase oxygen and nutrient delivery to active muscle, it has been suggested that nitric oxide supplements would improve sports performance. The results of clinical studies to test this hypothesis have been mixed. The latest research suggests that nitric oxide supplements may enhance performance in untrained or moderately trained subjects, but not in highly trained subjects (Bescoe et al, Sports Medicine, 42: 99-117, 2012). At last, a sports supplement for the common man!

Drugs That Affect Nitric Oxide Levels

Because nitric oxide has such powerful physiological effects, the pharmaceutical industry has been busy creating drugs that either increase nitric oxide levels or increase the biological effectiveness of nitric oxide. For example, these include drugs to treat angina, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and erectile dysfunction.

These drugs are generally effective, but have some drawbacks, namely:

  • They have numerous side effects. For example, just listen to the Viagra or Cialis ads on TV.
  • Some of them lose their biological effectiveness over time, especially the angina medications.

Natural Approaches for Increasing Nitric Oxide Levels

nitratesThere are two natural pathways for generating nitric oxide in the body.

1)     The first pathway is an enzymatic process that oxidizes a nitrogen atom in the amino acid arginine to nitric oxide.

2)     The second pathway is a non-enzymatic process in which naturally occurring nitrates and nitrites are reduced to nitric oxide either by bacteria in the mouth and intestine, or by naturally occurring antioxidants.

Arginine is found in proteins. The best protein sources of arginine are red meat, soy, crustaceans (crab, shrimp & lobster), nuts, spinach and lentils. In addition, you can find arginine supplements and arginine-enriched protein supplements.

The best natural sources of nitrates and nitrites are vegetables, especially spinach, beet root and arugula followed by green leafy vegetable and root vegetables in general. Vegetables provide about 80% of the nitrates and nitrites in the American diet.

Nitrates and nitrites do not appear to have the side effects of the nitic oxide producing drugs. This is probably because their effects on raising nitric oxide levels are slower and more modest, and they do not accumulate in the body.

Interestingly, conventionally grown vegetables are higher in nitrates than organically grown vegetables because of the use of inorganic, nitrate-containing fertilizers. However, that doesn’t mean that I recommend conventionally grown produce over organic produce. In last week’s “Health Tips From the Professor”, I reported that conventionally grown produce is 4-fold higher in pesticides.

Red meat and processed meats are also a minor source of nitrates and nitrites in the American diet because nitrates and nitrites are used as preservatives and coloring agents in those meats.

Are Nitrates and Nitrites Beneficial?

Until recently most of the focus has been on arginine as a natural source of nitric oxide. However, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that dietary sources of nitrates and nitrates can also provide the health benefits expected from nitric oxide.

For example, it has long been known that the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is as effective as medications for lowering moderately elevated blood pressure. The DASH diet recommends 4-5 servings of vegetables per day, and recent studies have suggested that the nitrates found in those vegetables may play an important role in the blood pressure lowering effect of the DASH diet (Hord et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90: 1-10, 2009; Lin et al, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, p 472396, 2012).

In addition, a recent meta-analysis of 16 clinical trials concluded that inorganic nitrate and beet root juice supplements lower blood pressure by modest amounts in healthy individuals (Siervo et al, Journal of Nutrition, 143: 818-826, 2013).

Are Nitrates and Nitrites Harmful?

There are two potential concerns around increasing dietary nitrate and nitrite intake.

1)     The one you may have heard the most about is the concern that dietary nitrates and nitrites might increase cancer risk. That turns out to be mainly associated with the nitrates and nitrites added to meats because, in the intestine, nitrites can combine with amino acids to form cancer causing nitrosamines.

That does not appear to be a problem with vegetables because vitamin C and other naturally occurring antioxidants in the vegetables prevent nitrosamine formation. There is no cancer risk in consuming more vegetables.

arginine

2)     The other concern is potential drug-nutrient interactions, especially drugs which also increase nitric oxide levels such as drugs for angina, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and erectile dysfunction. This is because the combination of nitric oxide from nitrates in the diet and from the drugs has the potential to cause dangerously low blood pressure.

As a general precaution, if you are taking any medications I suggest consulting your doctor or pharmacist before increasing your dietary intake of nitrates and nitrites.

 

The Bottom Line

1)     Nitric oxide plays an important role in keeping the endothelial lining of your blood vessels healthy, which is thought to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

2)    Nitric oxide also relaxes the smooth muscle cells that surround our blood vessels. That increases blood flow and decreases blood pressure. The increased blood flow also decreases angina and erectile dysfunction.

3)    Nitric oxide also may increase blood flow to active muscle cells. This has been reported to increase exercise efficiency and sports performance. This effect of nitric oxide appears to primarily affect untrained and moderately trained athletes, not highly trained athletes.

4)    It has been suggested that nitric oxide may be useful for memory and learning, immune function, mitochondrial function and may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Research is currently going on to evaluate these hypotheses.

5)     There are two natural sources of nitric oxide:

  • The amino acid arginine from proteins and supplements
  • Nitrates and nitrites from vegetables such as spinach, beet root and arugula and from supplements.

6)     Foods (primarily vegetables) and supplements providing dietary nitrates have been shown to modestly lower blood pressure in healthy individuals. They are likely to provide the other benefits associated with nitric oxide as well, without the side effects associated with nitric oxide enhancing medications.

7)     Nitrates and nitrites from vegetables are unlikely to increase cancer risk because vitamin C and other antioxidants from the vegetables prevent the conversion of nitrates and nitrites to nitrosamines.

8)     If you are taking any medications, especially medications for angina, high blood pressure or erectile dysfunction, consult with your doctor or pharmacist before increasing your dietary nitrate intake.

9)     High blood pressure is a silent killer. You should never substitute dietary nitrates for blood pressure medication. Always consult with your physician first. They may be willing to work with you to lower the amount of medication if appropriate. Finally, even if you don’t have high blood pressure, you should monitor your blood pressure on a regular basis. High blood pressure can sneak up on you without you realizing it.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Are Organic Foods Healthier?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Healthy Living, Nutritiion, Supplements and Health

Organic Fruits & Vegetables

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 fruits-vegetables

Are organic foods healthier for us than conventionally grown foods, specifically fruits and vegetables? The controversy about the benefits of organically raised produce continues. In fact, about the only thing that all sides agree on is that:

  • Organic foods have lower pesticide and herbicide residues and cause less environmental pollution.
  • Organic foods generally cost more.

But that is where all agreement ends.

  • Some experts argue that the pesticide levels on conventionally grown fruits and vegetables are within safe levels and that any risk from the pesticides is outweighed by the health benefits of the fruits and vegetables themselves.
  • Some studies have suggested that organic foods, fruits and vegetables, are healthier because they have higher antioxidant levels, while other studies have reported no nutritional differences between organic and conventionally grown fruits and vegetables.

Benefits of Organic Food?

The present study (Baranski et al, British Journal of Nutrition, doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001366) tried to overcome the shortcomings of many of the previously published reports.

To begin with this study was a meta-analysis that combined the results from 343 of the best designed previous studies to increase the statistical power of the analysis. In addition, the investigators utilized a type of statistical analysis that was superior to previously published studies. In short, it was a very good study. It does show some benefits of organic food.

organic-farms

The results were fairly clear cut:

  • Pesticide residues were four-fold lower in the organically raised produce than the conventionally raised produce. This result has been consistently seen in all of the previously published studies, and is probably the #1 reason that people choose organic produce. It is also one of the most agreed upon benefits of organic food.
  • Polyphenol antioxidant levels were significantly higher in the organically raised produce. The percent increase ranged from 19% to 69% depending on the polyphenolic compound tested. This increase has not been seen in all previously published studies, but would represent a side benefit if true.
  • Levels of the toxic metal cadmium were significantly less in the organically grown fruits and vegetables. The authors speculated that the cadmium found in conventionally grown produce came from the inorganic fertilizers that were used.

Should You Choose Organic Supplements?

natural-medicine

If organic foods are better for you than conventionally grown foods, does that mean that you should also choose organic supplements? While that idea sounds logical, the reality is actually more complex.

While organic foods clearly have less pesticides and toxic metals than conventionally grown foods, the level of those contaminants is not zero – even in foods with organic certification. The problem is that our environment is so polluted that no farm is contaminant free. A farmer can use the best organic practices, but if their groundwater is contaminated or pesticides from neighboring farms blow on to their farm, some of those toxic residues will end up in their “organic” crops.

 

So with supplements, “Organic” certification is not an absolute guarantee of purity. Instead you should insist on getting your supplements from a company with a very rigorous quality control program and a policy of rejecting any raw materials that contain contaminants of any kind.

The Bottom Line

1)     The latest study shows that pesticide residues are four-fold lower in the organically raised produce than the conventionally raised produce. This result has been consistently seen in all of the previously published studies, and is probably the #1 reason that people choose organic fruits and vegetables.

2)    Polyphenol antioxidant levels were significantly higher in the organically raised produce. The percent increase ranged from 19% to 69% depending on the polyphenolic compound tested. This increase has not been seen in all previously published studies, but would represent a side benefit if true.

3)    While one of the benefits of organic foods is they are less likely to be contaminated than conventionally grown foods, an organic certification is not a sufficient proof of purity when you are choosing supplements.You should insist on getting your supplements from a company with a very rigorous quality control program and a policy of rejecting any raw materials that contain contaminants of any kind.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

VTE

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Health Current Events, Supplements and Health

Benefits of Omega-3

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

venous-thomboembolism

 When a blood clot ends up in your lungs, it can be deadly. But that blood clot didn’t start out in your lungs. It initially formed in your veins where it is referred to as a thrombus. Then it broke off and migrated to your lungs – a process called venous thromboembolism or VTE. Venous thromboembolism is the third most common form of cardiovascular disease, killing around 100,000 Americans each year.

What if something as simple as adding more omega-3 fatty acids to your diet could dramatically decrease your risk of VTE? That’s exactly what a recent study (Hansen-Krone et al, J. Nutr., 144: 861-867, 2014) has suggested. It claims that one of the benefits of omega-3 in your diet may be to help prevent venous thromboembolism.

What Is Venous Thromboembolism or VTE?

As described above, venous thromboembolism starts when a blood clot (also called a thrombis) forms in a vein. About 2/3 of the time, the blood clot forms in the deep veins in the leg (called deep vein thrombosis or DVT) and stays there before eventually dissolving. The symptoms of deep vein thrombosis or DVT are generally leg pain and swelling.

About 1/3 of the time, the clot breaks loose and travels to the lung where it blocks blood flow to a portion of the lung (a process called pulmonary embolism). The symptoms of pulmonary embolism are severe shortness of breath, chest pain when breathing or coughing, and death! While the first two symptoms are pretty frightening, it’s the last symptom (death) that we’d really like to avoid.

Why Might Omega-3s Prevent Venous Thromboembolism or VTE?

One of the benefits of Omega-3s is they have been shown to reduce inflammation and platelet aggregation, two of the most important risk factors for venous thromboembolism. So it is logical to think that omega-3s might help reduce the risk. However, good scientists don’t rely on logic alone. They test their hypotheses by doing clinical studies.

Unfortunately, the results of previous clinical studies have been mixed. One study showed a protective effect of omega-3s, but two other studies found no correlation between omega-3 fatty acid intake and VTE. However, these studies had some significant limitations:

benefits-of-fish-oil-pills

  • They were all performed with populations in the United States where fish consumption is relatively low and many of the fish have low omega-3 content. As a consequence omega-3 fatty acid intake was low and there wasn’t much of a range in intake.
  • Some of the studies did not ask about the use of omega-3 supplements. In a country where 37% of the population takes fish oil supplements, that is a huge omission.
  • They did not measure omega-3 fatty acid levels in the blood to verify that their dietary surveys were accurate.

 

Do Omega-3s Prevent Venous Blood Clots or DVT?

pulmonary-embolism

The current study (Hansen-Krone et al, J. Nutr., 144: 861-867, 2014) followed 23,631 people aged 25-97 from Tromso, Norway for 16 years.

  • The participants filled out a comprehensive dietary survey at the time of enrollment where they indicated the number of times per week they ate fish and how often they used fish oil supplements.
  • The scientists in charge of the study verified the estimated omega-3 intake from the dietary analysis in a subgroup of the population by measuring omega-3 fatty acid levels in their blood.
  • Finally, they utilized Norway’s excellent health records to determine how many of the people in their trial experienced a venous thromboembolism – either fatal or non-fatal.

The results were pretty impressive:

  • Blood level measurements of omega-3 fatty acids verified the omega-3 intake estimates from the dietary survey. There was a direct correlation between estimated intake and blood levels of the omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Those participants who ate fish most often (≥3 times/week) were 22% less likely to experience a VTE than those who ate fish least often (1-2 times/week). That difference was borderline significant.
  • Those participants who ate fish most often and took fish oil supplements were 48% less likely to experience a venous thromboembolism than those who ate fish least often and took no fish oil supplements. That difference was highly significant.

 

Strengths & Weaknesses of the Study

Since not all of the previous clinical studies have reached the same conclusion, it is important to look at the strengths and weaknesses of the study compared to the previous studies.

Strengths of the Study:

  • Tromso is located on the northeast coast of Norway, so fish consumption is high and most of the local fish are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Consequently, omega-3 intake was relatively high, which significantly increases the chance of seeing an effect if one exists. Fish consumption in the US is generally lower and not all of the fish consumed are good sources of omega-3s.
  • The study also took into account the use of omega-3 supplements. Some of the US studies did not.
  • The estimates of omega-3 intake from the dietary survey were verified by blood analysis of omega-3 fatty acids.

Weaknesses of the Study:

  • The amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the supplements was not recorded, so it is unclear what level of omega-3 fatty acid intake was required to see a significant decrease in VTE risk. This will make it difficult for future investigators to repeat the study.
  • They did not measure other nutrients that might affect the venous thromboembolism risk.

 

The Bottom Line

1)     VTE is a serious condition with a high rate of mortality.

2)     A recent study suggests that a combination of high fish consumption and fish oil supplement use may significantly decrease the risk of venous thromboembolism.

3)     It is interesting to note that even three servings/week of omega-3 rich fish was not enough to cause a significant decrease in venous thromboembolism risk. It required additional omega-3s from fish oil supplements before the decreased risk was significant.

4)     Not all previous studies have come to the same conclusion. So while the most recent study had several improvements in design compared to previous studies, the case can’t be considered closed. More studies are clearly needed.

5)     This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may help prevent VTE from occurring. You should not consider them to be a treatment for the condition. If you are experiencing symptoms of venous thromboembolism (leg pain and swelling for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or shortness of breath and pain when breathing for pulmonary embolism), don’t reach for your fish oil capsules. Call your doctor right away.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

bacteria

Can Gut Bacteria Make You Fat?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Issues, Obesity

bacteria

Gut Bacteria, Diet and Obesity

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

 

Can gut bacteria make you fat? It has been known for some time that the types of bacteria found in the intestines of obese people are different than those found in the intestines of lean individuals. But no one really knew the significance, if any, of that observation. Did obesity favor certain types of intestinal bacteria, or did certain types of intestinal bacteria favor obesity?

Obese individuals are often insulin resistant, and insulin resistance can cause higher sugar levels in the blood, urine and intestine. So it was easy to assume that obesity simply favored the growth of different types of bacteria in the intestine. However, recent studies have suggested that certain types of bacteria in our intestines may actually cause obesity.

Can Gut Bacteria Make You Fat?

For example, one study (Vijay-Kumar et al, Science, 328: 228-231, 2010) compared a strain of mice that are genetically predisposed to obesity with wild type (genetically lean) mice. They first looked at the intestinal bacteria. It turned out that the obese mice and lean mice had the same differences in intestinal bacteria that obese and lean humans have. And just like obese humans the obese mice ate more, displayed insulin resistance, and had elevated levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and blood sugar (They were pre-diabetic).

The investigators then decided to test the hypothesis that the particular bacterial strains found in the intestines of genetically obese mice might be causing their insulin resistance and obesity.

In the first experiment they killed off the intestinal bacteria in the genetically obese mice by putting high dose antibiotics in their food. Depleting the intestinal bacteria created some health problems for the mice, but it completely prevented the insulin resistance, overeating and obesity normally observed with this strain of mice.

In the second experiment they sterilized the intestines of the genetically lean mice and then colonized their intestines with intestinal bacteria from the genetically obese mice. When they did this, the genetically lean mice developed many of the characteristics of the genetically obese mice including insulin resistance, overeating, obesity and hyperglycemia.

insulin resistanceIn short, when their guts became colonized with bacteria from obese mice, the genetically lean mice became overweight and developed diabetes. Based on these experiments and other studies the scientists hypothesized that the wrong kinds of intestinal bacteria can make a significant contribution to insulin resistance, which in turn can lead to overeating and obesity. In short, they concluded that bad gut bacteria may make you fat.

The Battle of The Bacteria

In a second study (Walker et al, Science, 341: 1079-1089, 2013) the intestines of germ free mice were colonized with gut bacteria from lean and obese humans. The results were essentially the same as in the first study. That is, the mice who received gut bacteria from lean humans stayed lean and those who received gut bacteria from obese humans became obese.

But then the investigators asked two really interesting questions:

1) If you mixed the two types of bacteria, which one would win “the battle of the bacteria”?

For this experiment they took mice that had received gut bacteria from lean humans and mice that had received gut bacteria from obese humans and put them in the same cage. It turns out that since mice eat each other’s poop, they pick up each other’s intestinal bacteria. (No, I am not suggesting that you…)

The results of this experiment were (envelop please): The “lean” bacteria won out. They became the predominant bacteria in the intestines of all of the mice in the cage. Furthermore, none of the mice became obese – even the ones that had originally been inoculated with gut bacteria from obese humans.

2) Are the types of bacteria in the intestine influenced by diet?

In the previous experiment the mice were eating standard mouse chow – which is pretty healthy if you are a mouse. So the investigators decided to ask what would happen if they ate foods that were similar to really good and really bad human diets. They devised two types of diets for the mice – one that was high in fresh fruits & vegetable and low in fat (the good diet) and one that was high in fat and low in fresh fruits and vegetables (the bad diet).

On the good diet, the results were the same as in the previous experiment. On the bad diet the “lean” bacteria never grew in the intestines of the mice inoculated with bacteria from obese humans and those mice went on to become obese.

This study confirmed that the wrong kind of gut bacteria can cause obesity, but it also showed that diet can influence the type of bacteria that can grow in the intestine – something I talked about in an earlier issue of “Health Tips From the Professor”  Our Gut Bacteria Are What We Eat.

The Bottom Line

1) Does this mean that you should rush out and buy some probiotics (good bacteria) as part of your weight loss strategy? The simple answer is no. That would be premature. These studies were performed in mice. Although similar results have been reported in humans (for example, Jumpertz et al, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 94: 58-65, 2011), those studies are very preliminary at present. In addition, genetics and diet obviously played a role in the results. In short, we are a long way from knowing to what extent intestinal bacteria might contribute to obesity in humans.

2) However, there are many very good reasons to make sure that you supply friendly bacteria to your intestinal track on a regular basis. For example, we know that bad bacteria in your intestine can compromise your immune system, convert foods that you eat to cancer causing chemicals, and cause chronic inflammation – which contributes to a number of major diseases.  Can gut bacteria make you fat?  We can’t yet say whether good bugs will help keep you slim, but we do know that they can help keep you healthy.

3) Finally, while we can’t yet say whether probiotic supplements can help you lose weight, it is becoming increasing clear that healthy diets (low fat, high fiber diets with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables) support the type of intestinal bacteria that can make you slim. This is yet one more reason why a healthy diet is so important if you want to stay slim and healthy.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Recent Videos From Dr. Steve Chaney

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Latest Article

Eye Pain Relief

Posted August 20, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

A Simple Treatment To Make Your Eye Pain Disappear

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT –The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

good newsAs the song goes: ”…Summertime and the living is e-a-s-y….”  Here in Florida we know that the living is easy because it’s so hot who wants to be doing anything except either sitting in the shade, or inside in the air conditioning.  Personally, I don’t think this summer was so bad, especially the evenings, but then, I really hate the cold so maybe my opinion is biased.

To stay in alignment with “living is easy,” I’m taking the advice of a few experts who teach easy ways to stay calm, motivated, and happy.  I’m taking a 30-day break from the news.  It’s so much in my face lately that it’s really affecting me in a very negative way.  So far, I’m two days into my 30 days.

I’ve decided that I want to take away some of the stress that seems to be normal for everyone. To that end I was listening to a speaker who was talking about the dangers of stress and what it does to the body.  Really frightening! He was saying that negative news sells and, for example, in the 1990’s in one city of the USA, homicides had gone down 42%, but the local TV station increased its coverage of homicides by 700%.  It’s only gotten worse in 2019.  It’s making us think we live in a dangerous country, and it sure isn’t helping our blood pressure.

To solve that problem, this speaker recommended going on a “news fast” for 30 days. Absolutely no negative news of any kind for a full month.  I’m surrounded by news all day so it’s a challenge, but I’ve found a great substitute:  www.GoodNewsNetwork.org.  Their mission is to be an antidote to the barrage of negativity experienced in the mainstream media.

So, I want to share this with you, and if you have any other good news stations/websites you love, please feel free to share it with me.

I think I’m off to the beach with a big umbrella and a thermos of ice-cold tea!  Living the e-a-s-y life!

Have a relaxing month!

 

Eye Strain And Eye Pain

 

eye pain reliefThis week I had a client come to the office with a situation that is pretty rare.  He described his pain as on his eyeball, which then referred to the entire top half of his skull.  It was like drawing a line that went under his eyes, through his ears, and around his head.  It was definitely a headache but concentrated on his eyes.  He was in desperate need of eye pain relief.

This client works in an industry that has the computer screen changing frequently and he’s needing to locate information on the new screen quickly.  He has experienced eye strain before, but other times just having the weekend off has resolved the problem.  This time the pain didn’t go away.

We don’t ever think about the muscles that move our eyes, but they can get repetitively strained just like any other muscle in the body.  This especially happens if you are watching something that has your eye moving back and forth rapidly, like a game on your computer or phone.

The muscles that are most prone to a repetitive strain injury are the ones on the top of the eye and on the outside of the eye.  I’m not an eye doctor so I can’t explain why these two muscles cause more problems than the others, but my experience has shown this to be the truth.

 

Eye Pain Relief

 

eye pain relief massageThe treatment is simple, but you need to do it cautiously.  If you wear contacts, you’ll need to remove them. The pressure is VERY light.

Put your fingertip directly onto your eyeball and press down GENTLY.

Slide your finger from the top of your eyeball to the outside of your eyeball.

If you find a point where it is tender, that’s the spasm that is putting a strain on your eyeball.  Just leave your fingertip on that point for 30 seconds.

You may even get a light show while doing this, with different shapes and colors.

You’ll find that this simple treatment will soothe tired eyes at the end of the day.  But remember, the pressure needs to be light and gentle.

Why stay in pain when it’s so easy to find the muscular source of the problem and eliminate it?

 

 

Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living (https://julstromethod.com/product/treat-yourself-to-pain-free-living-hardcopy/) is filled with over 100 pictures pain free living bookand descriptions proven to show you how to find and self-treat muscle spasms from head to foot!

Join the 1000’s of people worldwide who have discovered that tight muscles were the true source of pains they thought were from arthritis, fibromyalgia, and other serious conditions.  You have nothing to lose, and everything to gain by releasing tight muscles.

 

Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living is your step-by-step guide to pain relief!

 

 

Wishing you well,

 

Julie Donnelly

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

About The Author

julie donnellyJulie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

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