Is The Paleo Diet Bad For Your Heart?

Is The Paleo Diet Bad For Your Gut?

the paleo dietThere is a lot to like about the Paleo diet:

·       It is a whole food diet. Any diet that eliminates sodas, junk foods, and highly processed foods is an improvement over the American diet.

·       It includes lots of vegetables and some fruits.

·       It helps you lose weight, and any diet that results in weight loss improves your blood work – things like cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar control and more.

However, there are concerns the Paleo diet may not be healthy long term.

·       In part, that is because the diet is high in meat, red meat, and saturated fat.

·       Equally important, however, is what the diet eliminates – namely whole grains, legumes (beans), and dairy.

Those of you who have read my book, “Slaying The Food Myths”, know that I say: “We have 5 food groups for a reason”. This is particularly true for the plant food groups. That’s because each plant food group provides a unique blend of:

·       Vitamins and minerals. Those can be replaced with good multivitamin/multimineral supplement.

·       Phytonutrients. You can only get the full complement of health-promoting phytonutrients from a variety of foods from all 5 food groups.

·       Fiber. There are many kinds of fiber and they each play different roles in our intestine. You can only get all the health-promoting varieties of fiber by consuming fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes.

·       Gut bacteria. What we call fiber, our gut bacteria call food. Each of the plant food groups supports different populations of friendly gut bacteria.

Based on this reasoning, one might suspect that the Paleo diet might alter our gut bacteria in ways that could be bad for our health. Until recently, this sort of reasoning was just a theoretical concern. That’s because:

1)    We knew far too little about the health effects of different populations of bacteria. This is rapidly changing. Several recent studies have systematically investigated the connection between gut bacteria and health outcomes.

2)    We knew our diet influenced the bacteria populations found in our gut, but we had no understanding of how these changes might influence our health. This too is changing. The study (A Genoni et al, European Journal of Nutrition, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02036-y) I discuss this week is an excellent example of recent studies linking diet, gut bacteria, and risk factors for disease.

How Was The Study Done?

can you believe clinical studies doctorThis study recruited 91 participants from Australia and New Zealand. It was a very well designed study in that:

·       The Paleo diet group (44 participants) was recruited based on self-proclaimed adherence to the Paleo diet (< 1 serving/day of grains and dairy products) for one year or more. This is important because short term effects of switching to a new diet are confounded by weight loss and other factors.

o   After analyzing the diets of the Paleo group, the investigators found it necessary to subdivide the group into Strict Paleo (< 1 serving/day of grains and dairy products) and Pseudo-Paleo (> 1 serving/day of grains and dairy).

·       The control group (47 participants) was recruited based on self-proclaimed adherence to a “healthy diet” for 1 year or more with no change in body weight (A healthy diet was defined as a whole food diet containing a variety of foods from all 5 food groups). This is important because far too many studies compare the diet they are promoting to an unhealthy diet with a lot of sugar and highly processed junk foods. These studies provide little useful information because almost anything is better than an unhealthy diet.

·       The participants completed a diet survey based on the frequency of consumption of various foods during the previous year. However, because diet surveys based on the recollection of participants can be inaccurate, the investigators used two rigorous tests to validate the accuracy of those diet surveys.

o   The first was a 3-day weighed dietary record (WDR). Simply put, this means that participants weighed and recorded all foods and beverages before they were eaten for 3 days. Two of those days were weekdays, and one was a weekend day.

o   Secondly, the investigators used blood, urine, and metabolic measures to independently determine protein and energy intake of each participant. Participants who were identified by these means as under reporting both protein and energy were considered unreliable dietary reporters and were excluded from the analysis.

o   It is very rare to find a study that goes to this length to validate the accuracy of the dietary data used in their analysis.

The participants also provided blood, urine and stool samples and completed a physical activity assessment.

What Were The Differences Between The Paleo Diet And The Healthy Control Diet?

Paleo FoodsOnly the Strict Paleo Diet group was faithfully following the Paleo diet. In addition, most of the results with the Pseudo Paleo Diet Group were intermediate between the other two diets. Therefore, to simplify my discussion of this study I will only compare the Strict Paleo Diet group, which I refer to as the Paleo Diet group, with the Healthy Diet control group.

The Paleo diet emphasizes fresh vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables, and discourages grains. Thus, it is no surprise that:

·       The Paleo Diet group ate 74% more vegetables and 3 times more leafy green vegetables than the Healthy Diet group.

·       The Paleo Diet group ate only 3% of the grains and 3% of the whole grains compared to the Healthy Diet group.

The Paleo diet encourages consumption of meat and eggs and discourages consumption of dairy and plant proteins. Thus, it is not surprising that:

·       The Paleo Diet group ate 3 times more red meat and 5 times more eggs than the Healthy Diet group.

·       The Paleo Diet group ate 10% of dairy foods compared to the Healthy Diet group.

·       The Paleo Diet group consumed two times more saturated fat and cholesterol than the Healthy Diet group.

The most interesting comparison between the two diets was the following:

·       Intake of total fiber, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber was comparable on the two diets.

·       However, intake of resistant starch was 50% lower in the Paleo Diet group. This is significant because:

o   Resistant starch is a type of fiber found primarily in whole grains, legumes, potatoes, and yams (Potatoes and yams are also dietary “no nos” on most low-carb diets).

o   Resistant starch is an especially good food for certain species of healthy gut bacteria.

Is The Paleo Diet Bad For Your Gut?

Bas BacteriaBecause resistant starch affects gut bacteria, the study next looked at the effect of the two diets on the populations of gut bacteria. This is where the story starts to get interesting. When they looked at different groups of gut bacteria, they discovered that:

·       Bifidobacteria were much more abundant in the Healthy Diet group than in the Paleo Diet group, and the amount of Bifidobacteria in the gut was directly proportional to the amount of whole grains in the diet.

o   This is important because previous studies have suggested Bifidobacteria help maintain intestinal barrier integrity and protect against irritable bowel syndrome and obesity.

·       Roseburia were also much more abundant in the Healthy Diet group and proportional to the amount of whole grains in the diet.

o   This is important because previous studies have suggested Roseburia protect against inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

·       Hungatella were much more abundant in the Paleo Diet group and were inversely proportional to the amount of whole grains in the diet.

o   This is important because Hungatella metabolize carnitine and choline, which are found in meats (especially red meats), egg yolks, and high fat dairy, into a compound called trimethylamine or TMA. TMA is then further metabolized in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide, or TMAO.

o   TMAO is a bad player. It is positively associated with heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the evidence is strongest for heart disease. TMAO has been called an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death.

Because of this, the study looked at TMAO levels in the blood of the two diet groups. These results were concerning:

·       TMAO levels were 2.5-fold higher in the Paleo Diet group than in the Healthy Diet group.

·       As might be expected, TMAO levels were positively correlated with red meat intake and inversely proportional to whole grain intake.

Is The Paleo Diet Bad For Your Heart?

heart diseaseWhen you put all the evidence together you have a compelling argument that the Paleo diet is likely to increase the risk of heart disease. Let me summarize the data briefly:

1)    The Paleo diet discourages the consumption of whole grains.

2)    Whole grains are a major source of a dietary fiber called resistant starch.

3)    Because the Paleo diet is low in resistant starch, it causes a decrease in two healthy types of gut bacteria and an increase in a type of gut bacteria called Hungatella.

4)    Hungatella metabolize compounds found in meat, eggs, and dairy to a precursor of a chemical called TMAO. This study showed that TMAO levels were 2.4-fold higher in people consuming a Paleo diet.

5)    TMAO is associated with coronary artery disease and is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death.

The authors of the study concluded: “Although the Paleo diet is promoted for improved gut health, results indicate long-term adherence is associated with different gut microbiota and increased TMAO. A variety of fiber components, including whole grain sources, may be required to maintain gut and cardiovascular health.”

Of course, studies like this are looking at associations. They are not definitive. What we need are long term studies looking at the effect of the Paleo diet on heart disease outcomes like heart attack and stroke. Until we have these studies my advice is:

·       Don’t accept claims that the Paleo diet is heart healthy. There are no long-term clinical studies to back up that claim.

·       Be aware that the Paleo diet affects your gut bacteria in ways that may be bad for your heart.

The more we learn about our gut bacteria, the more we appreciate the importance of including all 5 food groups in our diet, especially all the plant food groups.

Are Low Carb Diets Healthy?

low carb dietThe Paleo diet is not the only diet that is high in red meat and low in whole grains. The same is true for virtually all the popular low-carb diets. There are studies showing other low-carb diets also alter gut bacteria and raise TMAO levels, so there is a similar concern that they may also increase the risk of heart disease.

This is in addition to concerns about the high saturated fat consumption which increases the risk of heart disease and red meat consumption, which may increase the risk of certain cancers.

Finally, there are no studies showing that any low-carb diet is healthy long term, even the Atkins diet, which has been around for more than 50 years. Until we have long-term studies about the health consequences of low-carb diets, my advice is similar to that for the Paleo diet.

·       Don’t accept claims that low-carb diets are healthy. There are no long-term clinical studies to back up that claim.

·       Be aware that low-carb diets affect your gut bacteria in ways that may be bad for your health.

The Bottom Line

A recent study looked at the effect of the Paleo diet on an important risk factor for heart disease. Here is a brief summary of the data:

1)    The Paleo diet discourages the consumption of whole grains.

2)    Whole grains are a major source of a dietary fiber called resistant starch.

3)    Because the Paleo diet is low in resistant starch, it causes a decrease in two healthy types of gut bacteria and an increase in a type of gut bacteria called Hungatella.

4)    Hungatella metabolize compounds found in meat, eggs, and dairy to a precursor of a chemical called TMAO. This study showed that TMAO levels were 2.4-fold higher in people consuming a Paleo diet.

5)    TMAO is associated with coronary artery disease and is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death.

Of course, studies like this are looking at associations. They are not definitive. What we need are long term studies looking at the effect of the Paleo diet on heart disease outcomes – like heart attack and stroke. Until we have these studies my advice is:

·       Don’t accept claims that the Paleo diet is heart healthy. There are no long-term clinical studies to back up that claim.

·       Be aware that the Paleo diet affects your gut bacteria in ways that may be bad for your heart.

·       Virtually all the popular low-carb diets discourage consumption of whole grains, so my advice for them is the same as for the Paleo diet.

The more we learn about our gut bacteria, the more we appreciate the importance of including all 5 food groups in our diet, especially all the plant food groups.

For more details on the study and what it means for you, read the article above.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease

Is Our Microbiome Affected By Exercise?

Microbiome Mysteries

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

is our microbiome affected by exerciseIn a recent post,  What is Your Microbiome and Why is it Important,  of “Health Tips From The Professor” I outlined how our microbiome, especially the bacteria that reside in our intestine, influences our health. That influence can be either good or bad depending on which species of bacteria populate our gut. I also discussed how the species of bacteria that populate our gut are influenced by what we eat and, in turn, influence how the foods we eat are metabolized.

I shared that there is an association between obesity and the species of bacteria that inhabit our gut. At present, this is a “chicken and egg” conundrum. We don’t know whether obesity influences the species of bacteria that inhabit our gut, or whether certain species of gut bacteria cause us to become obese.

Previous studies have shown that there is also an association between exercise and the species of bacteria that inhabit our gut. In particular, exercise is associated with an increase in bacteria that metabolize fiber in our diets to short chain fatty acids such as butyrate. That is potentially important because butyrate is a primary food source for intestinal mucosal cells (the cells that line the intestine). Butyrate helps those cells maintain the integrity of the gut barrier (which helps prevent things like leaky gut syndrome). It also has an anti-inflammatory effect on the immune cells that reside in the gut.

However, associations don’t prove cause and effect. We don’t know whether the differences in gut bacteria were caused by differences in diet or leanness in populations who exercised regularly and those who did not. This is what the present study (JM Allen et al, Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 50: 747-757, 2018 ) was designed to clarify.  Is our microbiome affected by exercise?

 

How Was The Study Designed?

is our microbiome affected by exercise studyThis study was performed at the University of Illinois. Thirty-two previously sedentary subjects (average age = 28) were recruited for the study. Twenty of them were women and 12 were men. Prior to starting the study, the participants filled out a 7-day dietary record. They were asked to follow the same diet throughout the 12-week study. In addition, a dietitian designed a 3-day food menu based on their 7-day recall for the participants to follow prior to each fecal collection to determine species of gut bacteria.

The study included a two-week baseline when their baseline gut bacteria population was measured, and participants were tested for fitness. This was followed by a 6-week exercise intervention consisting of three supervised 30 to 60-minute moderate to vigorous exercise sessions per week. The exercise was adapted to the participant’s initial fitness level, and both the intensity and duration of exercise increased over the 6-week exercise intervention. Following the exercise intervention, all participants were instructed to maintain their diet and refrain from exercise for another 6 weeks. This was referred to as the “washout period.”

VO2max (a measure of fitness) was determined at baseline and at the end of the exercise intervention. Stool samples for determination of gut bacteria and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were taken at baseline, at the end of the exercise intervention, and again after the washout period.

In short, this study divided participants into lean and obese categories and held diet constant. The only variable was the exercise component.

 

Is Our Microbiome Affected By Exercise?

is our microbiome affected by exercise fitnessThe results of the study were as follows:

  • Fitness, as assessed by VO2max, increased for all the participants, and the increase in fitness was comparable for both lean and obese subjects.
  • Exercise induced a change in the population of gut bacteria, and the change was comparable in lean and obese subjects.
  • Exercise increased fecal concentrations of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids in the lean subjects, but not in obese subjects.
  • The exercise-induced changes in gut bacteria and short-chain fatty acid production were largely reversed once exercise training ceased.

The authors concluded: “These findings suggest that exercise training induces compositional and functional changes in the human gut microbiota that are dependent on obesity status, independent of diet, and contingent on the sustainment of exercise.” [Note: To be clear, the exercise-induced changes in both gut bacteria and short-chain fatty acid production were independent of diet and contingent on the sustainment of exercise. However, only the production of short-chain fatty acids was dependent on obesity status.]

 

What Does This Study Mean For You?

is our microbiome affected by exercise gut bacteriaThere are two important take home lessons from this study.

  • With respect to our gut bacteria, I have consistently told you that microbiome research is an emerging science. This is a small study, so you should regard it as the beginning of our understanding of the effect of exercise on our microbiome rather than conclusive by itself. It is consistent with previous studies showing an association between exercise and a potentially beneficial shift in the population of gut bacteria.

The strength of the study is that it shows that exercise-induced changes in beneficial gut bacteria are probably independent of diet. However, it is the first study to look at the interaction between obesity, exercise and gut bacteria, so I would interpret those results with caution until they have been replicated in subsequent studies.

  • With respect to exercise, this may be yet another reason to add regular physical activity to your healthy lifestyle program. We already know that exercise is important for cardiovascular health. We also know that exercise increases lean muscle mass which increases metabolic rate and helps prevent obesity. There is also excellent evidence that exercise improves mood and helps prevent cognitive decline as we age.

Exercise is also associated with decreased risk of colon cancer and irritable bowel disease. This effect of exercise has not received much attention because the mechanism of this effect is unclear. This study shows that exercise increases the fecal concentrations of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids. Perhaps, this provides the mechanism for the interaction between exercise and intestinal health.

 

The Bottom Line

A recent study has reported that:

  • Exercise induces a change in the population of gut bacteria, and the change was comparable in lean and obese subjects.
  • Exercise causes an increase in the number of gut bacteria that produce butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids that are beneficial for gut health.
  • These effects are independent of diet, but do not appear to be independent of obesity because they were seen in lean subjects but not in obese subjects.
  • The exercise-induced changes in gut bacteria and short-chain fatty acid production are largely reversed once exercise training ceases.

The authors concluded: “These findings suggest that exercise training induces compositional and functional changes in the human gut microbiota that are dependent on obesity status, independent on diet, and contingent on the sustainment of exercise.”

For more details and my interpretation of the data, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

What Is Your Microbiome And Why Is It Important?

Probiotics and Hero Bacteria

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

what is your microbiomeSuddenly the term “microbiome” is hot. It is featured in books, internet articles, and marketing materials produced by supplement companies wanting to sell their “magic” probiotic supplements. But, you are confused. You don’t know if what you read is true or just marketing hype.  What is your microbiome anyway?

You have been asking me: “What is my microbiome? “Why is it important?” “How does it affect my health?” “Should I take a probiotic?” “What else should I do?”

I covered this topic in a section of my book, “Slaying The Food Myths” called “Our Mighty Microbiome.”  However, this is an exploding area of scientific research. Published papers on our microbiome have increased by 600% in just the past 10 years. I already need to update the information in my book.

 

What Is Your Microbiome?

what is your microbiome bacteriaYour microbiome is defined as the community of microorganisms (bacteria, yeast and other fungi, and viruses) that live in and on you. Most of those microorganisms are bacteria, and most of them reside in your large intestine. Thus, the term “gut bacteria” is a useful and easier to understand approximation.

We are just beginning to understand just how complex and diverse our microbiome community is. Each of us harbor about 38 trillion microorganisms (give or take a few trillion). That means we each have slightly more microorganisms than we do cells in our body. However, it is not just the sheer number of microorganisms that is impressive. It is the number of different species we harbor in our bodies that indicates the true complexity of our microbiome.

For example, we each have more than 1,000 different species of bacteria in our large intestine. Collectively, these bacteria have around 750,000 unique genes. That is 30 times more than the human genome. Even so, understanding the health implications of our microbiome would be relatively simple if we all had the same species of bacteria in our intestines, but we don’t.

We are all unique. We all have different species in our intestines. The only simplifying principle is that these bacteria seem to exist as in distinct communities that generally group together. Even so, our microbiomes are amazingly complex.

 

We Are What We Eat

what is your microbiome are what we eatYou have probably heard the phrase “We are what we eat” before and dismissed it. After all, we can eat carrots all day long, and we will never turn into a carrot. However, that phrase is literally true when we consider our microbiomes. For example, the microbiomes of meat-eaters have totally different families of microorganisms than microbiomes of vegetarians. We don’t yet fully understand the implications of these differences in gut bacteria. However, we think they may be responsible for some of the differences in health outcomes of meat eaters and vegetarians.

Our microbiomes are also influenced by individual foods in our diet. In part, that is because each food has a unique blend of fibers. To fully comprehend the significance of that statement, we need to understand what fibers do. Most of us think of fibers as the indigestible portion of foods. We think of it as “roughage” that helps keeps our intestines moving and binds toxins, so they can be eliminated safely. That is true, but fiber is much more.

While we can’t digest fiber, the microorganisms living in our intestine can digest much of it. That fiber becomes food for the microorganisms. We refer to food for our intestinal microorganisms as “prebiotics.”  That means you probably need to rethink what the term prebiotic really means.

In the past you have probably thought of prebiotics as supplements designed to support the growth of certain bacteria in our intestines. Now you know that prebiotic also refers to the fibers in the foods we eat. Because each food has a unique blend of fibers, each food supports the growth of slightly different populations of intestinal bacteria. This helps explain why the human microbiome is so complex.

We don’t fully understand the health consequences of these differences in our microbiome, but we think they are huge (see below). This is one reason I do not recommend any diet that eliminates whole food groups. It is easy to say we can replace the missing nutrients with a multivitamin. But, what about the missing fiber? We know that will affect our microbiome. We simply don’t know enough about the long-term health consequences of altering our microbiome to recommend eliminating high fiber foods from our diet. It’s not nice to fool with Mother Nature.

For example, in “Slaying The Food Myths” I discussed the evidence that meat-based low-carb diets are less healthy long term than primarily plant-based low-carb diets. That could be because of saturated fats and excess consumption of red meat. However, it might also be caused by the effect on the microbiome of the food groups that are eliminated in meat-based, low-carb diets.

Finally, as if all of this weren’t complex enough, there is some evidence that our microbiome is influenced by lifestyle (particularly obesity and exercise) and environment (particularly toxins in the environment). But, that’s another topic for another day.

 

Why Is Your Microbiome Important?

 

what is your microbiome hero bactriaNow you know that our microbiome is incredibly complex. You also know “We are what we eat.”  Why are those two things important? While there is a lot we don’t yet know, it appears that our microbiome has a powerful influence on our health.

For example, we know that our gut bacteria can convert components of the foods we eat into compounds that are absorbed into our bloodstream and either have a positive or negative effect on our health. Let me give you some specific examples:

  • “Good” intestinal bacteria produce butyrate in the process of digesting fiber. Butyrate, in turn, is thought to support intestinal health and activate genes that lower blood cholesterol levels.
  • “Bad” intestinal bacteria convert carnitine (a normal human metabolite found in meat, particularly red meat) into trimethylamine-N-oxide or TMAO, which is thought to increase the risk of heart disease. In a cruel twist of fate, these particular “bad” bacteria seem to be prevalent in the microbiome of meat-eaters, but absent from the microbiome of vegetarians.
  • We have been told that polyphenols are good for us. However, polyphenols are poorly absorbed. Fortunately, polyphenols are rapidly metabolized by our microbiome into metabolites that are more easily absorbed. Many experts think it is those microbiome-produced metabolites that are responsible for the health benefits of polyphenols. If everyone’s microbiome is different, how does that affect the health benefits of polyphenols. A recent study  puts this into perspective. The authors fed an apple extract to 12 individuals and measured 110 polyphenol metabolites in their blood over the next 5 hours. The pattern of blood metabolites was different for every individual in the study. Furthermore, the pattern of blood metabolites correlated with differences in the species of bacteria in their intestine.

I have given examples of 3 different kinds of food-microbiome interactions here. There are more examples of each type of food-microbiome interaction in the literature. This just adds another layer of complexity. Not only does the food we eat affect our microbiome, but our microbiome influences how we metabolize the foods we eat. We are just beginning to understand how these differences influence our health. However, based on what we currently know, here are some of the ways our microbiome can influence our health:

Current evidence suggests that “bad” bacteria and yeast in our intestines may:

  • Compromise our immune system.
  • Create a “leaky gut”, which allows partially digested foods to get into the bloodstream where they can trigger inflammation and auto-immune responses.
  • Adversely affect brain function and moods.
  • Convert components of the foods we eat into compounds which increase the risk of cancer and heart disease.
  • Perhaps, even make us fat.

In contrast, “good” bacteria:

  • Crowd out the bad bacteria and prevent the health problems they cause.
  • Break down undigested fiber into compounds that are beneficial to our health.

 

What About Probiotics?

what is your microbiome probioticsNow you know how important our microbiome is to our health, you are probably wondering whether you should add one or more probiotic supplements to your health regimen. Let me give you a brief primer on probiotic supplements.

“Hero Bacteria”: We have over 1,000 species of bacteria in our microbiome, and they work together in families. With that complexity, you may be wondering how someone could hope to create a probiotic supplement that worked. Fecal transplants (all the intestinal bacteria from a healthy individual) have been used for some life-threatening conditions, but I don’t think that is an approach most of us want to consider.

For better or worse, modern science uses a reductionist approach. We focus on a single component of a system and test its effectiveness in clinical studies. In the probiotic world, we focus on an individual strain of bacteria. If it proves effective in clinical studies, it is given a name and is used in probiotic supplements. It becomes what I call a “hero bacteria.”

For example, if scientists were looking for a probiotic supplement to aid with digestion or immunity, they would test dozens of strains initially. They would then select the one strain for further study. It may have been selected because it performed best in the preliminary studies. However, it may have been selected based on other characteristics, such as how easy it was for the scientist to grow in a culture dish. That strain is then put through rigorous clinical trials. If it performs well there, it becomes a “hero bacteria” suitable for a probiotic supplement. It has been “proven” to provide a specific benefit to our health.

However, it is not the only bacteria to provide that benefit. It might not have even been the “best” bacteria. It may have simply been the one that grew best in the lab.

Rule #1: Look for one or more named “hero bacteria” in your probiotic supplement. They have been proven to provide a specific health benefit.

Not All “Hero Bacteria” Are Created Equal: In some cases, companies that have developed a particular strain of “hero bacteria” have published the clinical studies supporting their claims in peer-reviewed journals. In other cases, they make the study claims, but say their data is “proprietary.” I am a skeptic. If they haven’t published their data, I assume it wasn’t good enough to be published.

Rule #2: Avoid any probiotic supplements that do not provide you with studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals showing that studies with their “hero bacteria” support their product claims.

Some Companies Get Ahead Of What Good Science Supports: Their claims sound amazing, but they aren’t supported by clinical proof. They call it marketing. I call it lying.

In some cases, the lying is clear because they don’t provide you with clinical studies published in peer-reviewed journals.

However, if their claims sound too good to be true and they have provided clinical studies published in peer-reviewed journals, my advice is to read the studies. You don’t need to be an expert. The abstracts for every published article are available online. Read the abstract and see what health claims it makes. [Reviewers of peer-review articles generally insist that the claims match the evidence.] If a company’s marketing claims exceed the claims from the published studies backing their product, they are probably lying to you.

Rule #3: If a company’s marketing claims exceed the claims from the published studies backing their product, run the other direction. They are lying to you.

It Takes A Village: While it is useful to have one or more “hero bacteria” in your probiotic supplement, don’t assume that is all you need. Remember that you have many more than one or two bacteria in your gut. You have a thousand or more different species. For every “hero bacteria” that has gone through the clinical review process, there are dozens more that provide the same benefit, and they all work together. More importantly, they work by different mechanisms. You need a holistic approach to creating a healthier microbiome.

My recommendation is to choose probiotic supplements that contain several species that work together rather than just a single “hero bacteria.” I also recommend following a diet that supports a healthy microbiome. Based on what we currently know, that would be a primarily plant-based diet containing all five food groups.

Rule #4: Choose probiotic supplements that contain several species that work together rather than a single “hero bacteria”.

 

The Bottom Line

 

Because I know how confusing the term “microbiome” is to most of you I have written a brief overview of our microbiome and what it does. Topics I have covered are:

  • What is our microbiome?
  • How do the foods we eat influence our microbiome?
  • How does our microbiome influence the metabolism of the foods we eat?
  • How does our microbiome influence our health?
  • How do you select a good probiotic supplement?

If any of these topics interest you, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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