Are There Diets to Fight Depression In Women

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Diets to Fight Depression, Health Current Events

A Story of 6 Blind Men And An Elephant

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

 

6 blind men and a elephantAre there diets to fight depression in women?  This week’s health tip reminds me of the story of 6 blind men and an elephant. You probably remember the story. One blind man grabbed a leg and declared that an elephant is like a tree trunk. Another blind man grabbed the tail and declared that an elephant was like a rope – and so it went. Each blind man had a different version of reality, but none of them really knew what an elephant was like.

Sometimes science is like that. Every scientific study is designed to test a specific hypothesis, and sometimes we scientists can become limited by the hypothesis we are testing. We only see what we are looking for. We become like the blind men trying to figure out what an elephant really is.

That thought came to mind recently when one study claimed that an anti-inflammatory diet decreased the risk of depression by 26% in women, and another claimed that increased flavonoid intake was the secret to decreasing depression in women. Of course, both of those reports came on the heels of another study a few months ago claiming that a Mediterranean diet was the secret to decreasing depression.

If all of this sounds confusing, keep that image of the blind men and the elephant in your mind for a while. I’m going to come back to the elephant later, but let me start by evaluating the merits of the two most recent studies which claim there are diets to fight depression in women.

How Were These Studies Designed?

diets to fight depressionThe first study (Shivappa et al, British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114516002853, 2016)  was designed to test the association between the anti-inflammatory potential of their diets and the risk of depression in middle-aged Australian women. The study followed 6,438 women with an average age of 52 for 12 years.

Self-administered surveys were sent to the participants every 2-3 years (most participants completed 5 surveys during the study). A Dietary Inflammation Index (DII) was calculated based on the food frequency portion of the surveys. Depression scores were calculated based on their answers to 10 questions from a well established depression rating system.

This was a well designed study and the results were fairly straight forward. Those women consuming the most anti-inflammatory diets were 26% less likely to develop depression than the women consuming the most pro-inflammatory diets.

The second study (Chang et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.124545, 2016) was designed to test the association between flavonoid intake and depression in middle aged and older American women. This study followed 82,643 women ages 36-80 for an average of 10 years.

Flavonoid intake was calculated based on food frequency questionnaires administered every 4 years. Depression was assessed based on several well established ratings systems.

Again, this was a very well designed study, and the results were quite impressive:

  • Women who consumed the largest amounts of flavonoids were 7-10% less likely to develop depression than women consuming the least flavonoids.
  • When the study was broken down into flavonoid-containing foods, citrus fruits appeared to be particularly beneficial. Women consuming >2 servings per week were 18% less likely to develop depression than women consuming <1 serving per week.
  • Tea also scored high in their analysis. Women consuming >4 cups per day were 12% less likely to develop depression than women who rarely or never consumed tea.
  • While those flavonoid-rich foods stood out, the authors emphasized that there were no “magic” foods. It was a composite of all flavonoid containing foods that was related to lower depression risk.
  • The effect of a flavonoid-rich diet was particularly beneficial for older women. For women aged 65 or older at the beginning of the study, high flavonoid intake was associated with a 17% lower risk of developing depression.

 

Diets to Fight Depression:  The Secret

diets to fight depression secretsI have just described two very well designed studies on diets to fight depression in women. One concluded that an anti-inflammatory diet reduced the risk of depression while the other concluded that diets rich in flavonoids decreased the risk of depression. I have previously described studies suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids decrease depression risk in women and that consuming junk food increases depression risk . Other studies have suggested that a Mediterranean diet may significantly reduce depression.

If you are looking for a natural solution to recurring depression, these individual reports are probably confusing and overwhelming. I call it the “study du jour” syndrome. It can lead to paralysis. You just don’t know what you should try first.

What if these individual studies were like the blind men trying to describe an elephant?  Perhaps we need to step back and see if we can find the commonality in all of these studies. We need to look for the elephant.

For example, we might start by asking what is an anti-inflammatory diet? It turns out that diets rich in fruits, vegetables, fatty fish, olive oil and legumes are anti-inflammatory, while diets rich in saturated fats, cholesterol, and refined carbohydrates are pro-inflammatory. In short, the anti-inflammatory diet is very similar to the Mediterranean diet, and fully consistent with the reported benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. The pro-inflammatory diet, on the other hand, perfectly describes a junk food diet loaded with fat, cholesterol, and simple sugars and are not diets to fight depression.

What about diets rich in flavonoids? What are those flavonoid-rich foods? It turns out that flavonoids are found primarily in plant foods, and fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.  Beverages such as tea and coffee are particularly good sources.

So the secret is that there is no secret. Your mom was right all along. Eat your fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Take your fish oil. Take a vitamin supplement to make sure you didn’t miss anything. Avoid the junk foods. You’ll be healthier, and you’ll be happier. Include these in your diets to fight depression.

What Do These Studies Mean For You?

When considered individually these studies may seem confusing. However, when you consider them altogether the evidence is overwhelming. A good diet can significantly reduce your risk of depression, and a bad diet can make your depression even worse.

Of course, diet alone will not be enough to prevent depression in everyone. A more holistic approach would be to include exercise, socialization, and some stress reduction practices. Whether stress reduction occurs through yoga, meditation, counseling or other practices will vary from individual to individual.

Of course, if your depression is severe, professional help may be needed. I regard anti-depressant medications as a very last resort, but they can be life savers for some people.

So, with the inclusion of the right foods, the above studies seem to show there are diets to fight depression in women.

 

The Bottom Line

 

  • Two very good studies have recently been published concerning diet and depression in women:
  • One study concluded that an anti-inflammatory diet reduced the risk of depression in women.
  • Another study concluded that a diet rich in flavonoids reduced the risk of depression in women.
  • Other recent studies have concluded that diets rich in omega-3s and Mediterranean diets decrease depression risk in women. Another study concluded that consuming junk foods significantly increased depression risk.
  • When considered individually these studies may seem confusing. However, when you consider them altogether the evidence is overwhelming. A good diet can significantly reduce your risk of depression, and a bad diet can make your depression even worse.
  • Your mom was right all along. Eat your fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Take your fish oil. Take a vitamin supplement to make sure you didn’t miss anything. Avoid the junk foods. You’ll be healthier, and you’ll be happier
  • Of course, diet alone will not be enough to prevent depression in everyone. A more holistic approach would be to include exercise, socialization, and some stress reduction practices. If your depression is severe, professional help may be needed. I regard anti-depressant medications as a very last resort, but they can be life savers for some people.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Best Diet For Heart Disease Prevention

Posted July 9, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Are The American Heart Association’s Recommendations Correct?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

What is the best diet for heart disease prevention? 

diet for heart disease preventionHeart disease is a killer. It continues to be the leading cause of death – both worldwide and in industrialized countries like the United States and the European Union. When we look at heart disease trends, it is a good news – bad news situation.

  • The good news is that heart disease deaths are continuing to decline in adults over 70.
  • The decline among senior citizens is attributed to improved treatment of heart disease and more seniors following heart-healthy diets.
  • The bad news is that heart disease deaths are starting to increase in younger adults, something I reported in an earlier issue, Heart Attacks Increasing in Young Women of “Health Tips From the Professor.”
  • The reason for the rise in heart disease deaths in young people is less clear. However, the obesity epidemic, junk and convenience foods, and the popularity of fad diets all likely play a role.

Everyone has a magic diet for reducing heart disease risk. The American Heart Association tells us to avoid fats, especially saturated fats. Vegans tell us to avoid animal protein. Paleo and keto enthusiasts tell us carbs are the problem. Who is correct?

Of course, we don’t eat fats, carbohydrates, or proteins. We eat foods. That is why a recent study (T Meier et al, European Journal of Epidemiology, 34: 37-45, 2019) is so important. It reported which foods increase and which decrease the risk of premature heart disease deaths.

How Was The Study Done?

diet for heart disease prevention studyThe authors of the current study analyzed data from the “Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study”, a major world-wide effort designed to estimate the portions of deaths caused by various risk factors.

The current study focused on the impact of 12 dietary risk factors on heart disease deaths between 1990 and 2016 for 51 countries in four regions (Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia).

The dietary risk factors were:

  • Diets low in fiber, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and whole grains.
  • Diets high in sodium, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and trans fatty acids.

Saturated fat and meat were not explicitly included in the GBS Study data. However, diets low in polyunsaturated fats and omega-3 fats are likely high in saturated fats. Similarly, diets low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes are likely higher in meats. The study also did not include dairy, and some recent studies suggest that some dairy foods may decrease heart disease risk.

For simplicity I will only consider the findings from Western Europe because their diet and heart disease death trends are similar to those in the United States.

 

Best Diet for Heart Disease Prevention?

plant-based diet bestThe study found that in 2016 (the last year for which data were available):

  • Dietary risk factors were responsible for 49.2% of heart disease deaths.
  • 6% of all diet-related heart disease deaths occurred in adults younger than 70, and that percentage has been increasing in recent years.

When they looked at the contribution of individual foods to diet related heart disease deaths, the percentages were:

  • Diets low in whole grains = 20.4%
  • Diets low in nuts and seeds = 16.2%
  • Diets low in fruits = 12.5%
  • Diets high in sodium = 12.0%
  • Diets low in omega-3s = 10.8%
  • strong heartDiets low in vegetables = 9.0%
  • Diets low in legumes = 7.0%
  • Diets low in fiber = 5.7%
  • Diets low in polyunsaturated fats = 3.7%
  • Diets high in processed meats = 1.6%
  • Diets high in trans fatty acids = 0.8%
  • Diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages = 0.1%

So, what is the best diet for heart disease prevention?

In short, this study concluded:

  • A primarily plant-based diet is the best protection against premature death due to heart disease.
  • All plant-based food groups (whole grains, nuts and seeds, fruits, vegetables, and legumes) play an important role in reducing heart disease deaths.
  • Meat was not included in the analysis, but it is likely that most people’s diets in this region of the world contained some meat. The most likely take-away is that meat does not affect heart disease risk in the context of a primarily plant-based diet.
  • Dairy was not included in the analysis either, but some studies suggest dairy, particularly fermented dairy foods, reduce heart disease risk.
  • Finally, the study concluded: “Compared to other…modifiable risk factors (physical inactivity, drug and alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, obesity, etc.), an altered diet is the most effective means of preventing premature deaths from cardiovascular disease in Western Europe.”

While every study has its weaknesses, this study is consistent with multiple previous studies showing that primarily plant-based diets are best for reducing heart disease risk. You will find a more complete discussion of these studies in my book “Slaying The Food Myths.”

 

Are the American Heart Association’s Recommendations Correct?

With this study’s results in mind we can now ask whether the recommendations of the American Heart Association and other popular diets are correct. Are they likely to reduce heart disease deaths?

  • The American Heart Association Recommends a dietary pattern that emphasizes a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, skinless poultry and fish, and low-fat dairy products. This study supports those recommendations.
  • This study also supports the heart-health benefits of the Mediterranean and DASH diets.
  • Meat and dairy were not explicitly considered in this study. Thus, the results of this study are also consistent with vegan and semi-vegetarian diets.
  • However, low carb diets like Paleo and keto eliminate some of the key food groups (whole grains, fruits, and legumes) that appear to be essential for reducing heart disease risk. 40% of the heart-health benefits in this study came from those 3 food groups. Thus, this study does not support claims that those two diets are heart-healthy long term.

 

The Bottom Line

 

Everyone has a magic diet for reducing heart disease risk. The American Heart Association tells us to avoid fats, especially saturated fats. Vegans tell us to avoid animal protein. Paleo and keto enthusiasts tell us carbs are the problem. Who is correct?

A recent study provides some important clues. It looked at dietary patterns associated with reduced risk of premature death from heart disease in Western Europe. The study concluded:

  • A primarily plant-based diet is the best protection against premature death due to heart disease.
  • All plant-based food groups (whole grains, nuts and seeds, fruits, vegetables, and legumes) play an important role in reducing heart disease deaths.
  • Meat did not appear to affect heart disease risk in the context of a primarily plant-based diet.
  • Dairy was not included in the analysis, but some studies suggest dairy, particularly fermented dairy foods, reduce heart disease risk.
  • Finally, the study concluded: “Compared to other…modifiable risk factors (physical inactivity, drug and alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, obesity, etc.), an altered diet is the most effective means of preventing premature deaths from cardiovascular disease.”

While every study has its weaknesses, this study is consistent with multiple previous studies showing that primarily plant-based diets are best for reducing heart disease risk. You will find a more complete discussion of these studies in my book “Slaying The Food Myths.”

With this study’s results in mind we can now ask whether the recommendations of the American Heart Association and other popular diets are correct. Are they likely to reduce heart disease deaths?

  • The American Heart Association Recommends a dietary pattern that emphasizes a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, skinless poultry and fish, and low-fat dairy products. This study supports those recommendations.
  • This study also supports the heart-health benefits of the Mediterranean and DASH diets.
  • Meat and dairy were not explicitly considered in this study. Thus, the results of this study are also consistent with vegan and semi-vegetarian diets.
  • However, low carb diets like Paleo and keto eliminate some of the key food groups (whole grains, fruits, and legumes) that appear to be essential for reducing heart disease risk. 40% of the heart-health benefits in this study came from those 3 food groups. Thus, this study does not support claims that those two diets are heart-healthy long term.

For more details read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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