Do Sodas Cause Obesity?

Do Diet Sodas Make You Fat?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Issues

Should You Kick the Diet Soda Habit?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

Do Sodas Cause Obesity?We are consuming ever increasing amounts of diet sodas to combat the obesity epidemic. In 1960 14% of the U.S. population was obese and 3.3% of us consumed diet sodas. By 2010 41% of the U.S. population was obese and 20% of us were consuming diet sodas. It’s pretty clear that diet sodas aren’t helping us solve the obesity epidemic, but are they actually part of the problem?

You’ve probably seen the headlines questioning whether diet sodas actually help you lose weight. In fact many of the headlines imply the diet sodas will cause you to gain weight. Two of the more sensational headlines I came across said “Think diet sodas help you lose weight? Not so, Purdue study finds”, and “Can diet sodas actually cause more weight gain than regular sodas?”

Let me start with the first headline. The Purdue publication referred to in the headline (Swithers, Trends in Endocrin. & Metab., 24: 431-441) wasn’t really a study, it was an opinion piece. That simply means that it was a review where the references were selected on the basis of the author’s opinion. That’s OK if you clearly label it as an opinion piece, which Dr. Swithers did.

Now for the second headline: There is no good evidence that diet sodas will cause you to gain more weight than regular sodas. However, a number of published studies suggest that consumption of diet sodas is associated with weight gain – sometimes just as much weight gain as consumption of the sugar sweetened sodas they replace.

Do Diet Sodas Make You Fat?

The evidence that Dr. Swithers (Trends in Endocrin. & Metab., 24: 431-441) cited was pretty impressive.

For example, the San Antonio Heart Study recorded consumption of diet sodas and regular sugar sweetened sodas in 3,862 adults (average age 44) and measured the increase in BMI (a measure of obesity) over the next 7-8 years. That study found:

  • Individuals consuming >21 diet sodas/week were almost 2-fold more likely to become overweight or obese than individuals consuming no sodas.
  • There was a clear dose response effect, with a 41% increased risk of becoming overweight or obese for each can or bottle of diet soda consumed/day.
  • The increase in weight associated with diet soda consumption was just as great for those who were at normal weight at the beginning of the study as it was for those who were obese at the beginning of the study.
  • In this study the increase in weight associated with soda consumption was greater for diet sodas than it was for regular sodas.

Another major study (Circulation, 116: 480-488, 2007) recorded diet and regular soda consumption in 6039 participants in the Framingham Heart Study (average age 53) and measured the increase in obesity (along with other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes) over the next 4 years. This study found:

  • Individuals consuming one or more sodas/day had a 48% increased risk of becoming obese compared to people with infrequent soda consumption.
  • In this study the weight increase associated with soda consumption was virtually the same for diet sodas and regular sodas.

Are These Studies True?

Diet SodaThese, and similar studies have been criticized because they are looking at associations, which do not prove cause-and-effect. For example, it’s not always clear whether the people in those studies gained weight because they were consuming diet sodas or consumed diet sodas because they were overweight.

That argument is less persuasive for the San Antonio Heart Study, because the weight gain associated with diet soda consumption was also seen with people who were at normal weight at the beginning of the study. Still there is a need for good double blind, placebo controlled intervention studies.

There have been very few intervention studies in which one group of subjects were told to drink only diet sodas and the other group only regular sodas. Unfortunately, in those studies the total caloric intake of the diet soda group was also restricted. So while the diet soda group did lose weight, it’s not clear whether that weight loss was due to the diet sodas or the overall caloric restriction of the diet.

You may have also seen the recent headlines from a study showing that people consuming diet sodas gained no more weight than people consuming water (Obesity, 22: 1415-1421, 2014). But once again, both groups were given detailed instructions on how to restrict total calories. Almost any diet will work if you have a dietitian looking over your shoulder and telling you how to restrict calories.

So what is the average consumer to think? On the one hand, dietitians and health professionals are telling you to drink diet sodas if you want to lose weight. On the other hand, you keep seeing these headlines saying the diet sodas may not help you lose weight or may even cause you to gain weight.

Of all the recent blogs and online articles on the topic, the only one I actually recommend reading is from WebMD (http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/diet-sodas-and-weight-gain-not-so-fast).

WebMD often adheres to the AMA line, but I found this to be a very balanced analysis of the science behind the question of whether diet sodas help or hinder weight loss.

How Could Diet Sodas Possibly Cause Weight Gain?

The million dollar question is: How could diet sodas possibly cause weight gain? After all, they contain no calories. I think the most useful perspective from the Web MD article is that it’s probably not the diet sodas themselves that cause weight gain. It’s what we eat with the diet sodas that cause the weight gain. Here are a couple of quotes I found particularly enlightening.

Dr. Barry Popkin, a colleague from the University of North Carolina, calls it the “Big Mac and Diet Coke” mentality. He says: “Especially in America, we have a lot of people who eat high-fat, high-sugar diets, but also drink diet sodas.”

Why is that? Dr. David Katz from Yale University has research suggesting that artificial sweeteners may condition people to want to eat more sweet foods. He says: “Our taste buds don’t really differentiate between sweet in sugar and sweet from, say, aspartame. The evidence that this sweet taste is addictive is pretty clear. What I have seen in my patients is that those who drink diet soda are more vulnerable to processed foods with added sugars.”

There is some independent evidence to back up that hypothesis. For example, one recent study showed that rats given artificially sweetened yoghurt with their rat chow ate more rat chow and gained more weight than rats fed sugar-sweetened yoghurt with their rat chow (Behavioral Neuroscience, 122: 161-173, 2008). Another study in humans showed that consumption of artificial sweeteners activates a portion of the brain associated with cravings for sweets (Physiology & Behavior, 107: 560-567, 2012).

However, this viewpoint is controversial. Some experts think that the association between diet sodas and weight gain is psychological rather than physiological. Simply put, when people consume diet drinks they feel that they can splurge elsewhere.

The Bottom Line

  • Once again there is no magic bullet. There is no good evidence that diet sodas will help you lose weight unless you carefully control the calories in everything else you eat. And, diet sodas may just cause you to gain weight because they make you crave the very foods that are worst for your waistline.
  • In addition, there may be other good reasons not to consume diet sodas. For example, recent studies have shown that consumption of diet sodas may be linked to increased risk of metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes (Circulation, 116: 480-488, 2007) and heart disease (see Does Sugar Cause Heart Disease? and Can Soft Drinks Cause Heart Disease?
  • My recommendations are to drink water, herbal teas, unsweetened tea & coffee or unsweetened mineral water or seltzer – perhaps with a splash of fruit juice.
  • Finally, there is no substitute for a healthy, calorie controlled diet; exercise; and lifestyle change if you want to lose weight and keep it off.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (1)

  • Mike Lucas

    |

    Great info Dr. Chaney! Thank you for the insight! Much appreciated!

    Mike & Jenn
    Shaklee Distributors
    Superior, WI

    Reply

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Latest Article

Groin Pain Relief

Posted April 16, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

What Is The Pectineus Muscle And Why Is It Important?

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT –The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Spring Is In The Air

spring floridaI remember as a child we sang “Though April showers may come your way…they bring the flowers that bloom in May…”

Of course, here in Florida we are blessed with flowers all year, but there’s still a lovely feeling that happens in Spring.  It’s still cool enough most days to go out running, and the humidity is still low.  Traffic will soon be easing up as our friends from the north start their trek back home, and daylight savings time is giving us more time to get to the beach for sunset.  Lovely!

Fun Facts About Spring….

  • The earliest known use of the term “spring cleaning” was in 1857
  • The word “spring” has been used for the season since the 16th century
  • The first day of spring is called the vernal equinox
  • On the first day of spring, the sunrise and sunset are about 12 hours apart everywhere on earth
  • Spring fever isn’t just a saying. Experts say the body changes due to the temperature and can cause an upset in your health.
  • The actual start of spring varies from March 19th to the 21st, but it is commonly celebrated on the 21st.

Do you like to garden?  Now is the perfect time to get your gardens planted so you’ll have home grown veggies for the entire summer.  For me, it’s also a great time to do some spring cleaning and get the house in order before the summer closes all the windows and the air conditioning becomes our indoor relief.

But these activities can also cause a strain on muscles, so don’t forget to take care of yourself. If you put too much strain on muscles you haven’t used all winter, you can develop problems and need groin pain relief.

 

A Tiny Muscle Can Cause Groin Pain

groin pain relief pectineusLately I’ve had several clients come in because of groin pain that has their medical practitioners stumped.  Their symptoms are varied, but most complain that it feels like they hit their pubic bone with a rubber mallet.  Ouch!

One client loves to ride her horse, but the pain had prevented that for several weeks. Another was considering selling the motorcycle that she and her husband love because she just can’t sit on it anymore.

Several years ago, I had a male client tell me that he had this same pain and he was told it could be his prostrate causing the issue.  Fortunately, that wasn’t he problem at all.

The muscle that caused all these problems, and a lot more, is the Pectineus.

The Pectineus muscle originates on your pubic bone and inserts into the very top of your inner thigh bone (femur).

You can see the Pectineus and surrounding muscles more clearly by going to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pectineus_muscle

Most muscles have more than one function, and this is true for the Pectineus.  The function we’ll look at today is called adduction.  It brings your leg in toward midline.  If you think of a soccer player kicking the ball with the inside of his ankle, it was the Pectineus that helped draw his leg in so he could do the shot.

Each of my clients had pain while trying to bring their leg out so they could sit on their horse, or on their motorcycle.  The tight muscle was pulling on their pubic bone and causing a severe strain.

This muscle is easier to have someone else treat it for you because of its location but give it a try and see if you can locate & treat it yourself.

 

Groin Pain Relief

groin pain relief treatmentThe picture to the left is showing an athlete self-treating her adductors.  These muscles, and the Pectineus muscle, all originate at the same point on the pubic bone.  The picture is showing her massaging the middle of the adductors.

To reach the Pectineus, move the ball all the way up to the crease in your leg.  You can do the treatment with a ball, but because of the size of the muscle and its location, it’s easier to do it with your fingertips.

Sit as this athlete is sitting, and even bring your opposite leg up so your foot is flat on the floor.  For example, in this picture, the athlete would bring her right leg up so her right foot is on the floor, and then lean a bit further onto her left hip.  That opens up the area so she can reach a bit easier into the muscle while using her fingertips.

Press into the muscle, being careful to feel for a pulse, and moving if you feel one.  If the Pectineus is in spasm, you’ll know it immediately when you press on it.  If it’s not in spasm, you won’t be able to find it at all.

Remember to stay within your pain tolerance level, this isn’t a “no pain, no gain” situation.  Never go deeper than what feels tender, but not so much that you want to faint. Hold the pressure for 15 seconds. Then let up on the pressure, but keep your fingers in the same place.

Repeat this movement several times. Each time it will hurt less, and eventually it won’t hurt at all.  That’s when the muscle has completely released, and you will have relief from the pain.

It’s as simple as that!

Why stay in pain when it’s so easy to find the muscular source of the problem and eliminate it?

calf cramps remedy bookTreat Yourself to Pain-Free Living (https://julstromethod.com/product/treat-yourself-to-pain-free-living-hardcopy/). It is filled with over 100 pictures and descriptions proven to show you how to find and self-treat muscle spasms from head to foot!

Join the 1000’s of people worldwide who have discovered that tight muscles were the true source of pains they thought were from arthritis, fibromyalgia, and other serious conditions.  You have nothing to lose, and everything to gain by releasing tight muscles.

Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living is your step-by-step guide to pain relief!

 

Wishing you well,

 

Julie Donnelly

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

julie donnellyAbout The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

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