Do Sodas Cause Obesity?

Do Diet Sodas Make You Fat?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Issues

Should You Kick the Diet Soda Habit?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

Do Sodas Cause Obesity?We are consuming ever increasing amounts of diet sodas to combat the obesity epidemic. In 1960 14% of the U.S. population was obese and 3.3% of us consumed diet sodas. By 2010 41% of the U.S. population was obese and 20% of us were consuming diet sodas. It’s pretty clear that diet sodas aren’t helping us solve the obesity epidemic, but are they actually part of the problem?

You’ve probably seen the headlines questioning whether diet sodas actually help you lose weight. In fact many of the headlines imply the diet sodas will cause you to gain weight. Two of the more sensational headlines I came across said “Think diet sodas help you lose weight? Not so, Purdue study finds”, and “Can diet sodas actually cause more weight gain than regular sodas?”

Let me start with the first headline. The Purdue publication referred to in the headline (Swithers, Trends in Endocrin. & Metab., 24: 431-441) wasn’t really a study, it was an opinion piece. That simply means that it was a review where the references were selected on the basis of the author’s opinion. That’s OK if you clearly label it as an opinion piece, which Dr. Swithers did.

Now for the second headline: There is no good evidence that diet sodas will cause you to gain more weight than regular sodas. However, a number of published studies suggest that consumption of diet sodas is associated with weight gain – sometimes just as much weight gain as consumption of the sugar sweetened sodas they replace.

Do Diet Sodas Make You Fat?

The evidence that Dr. Swithers (Trends in Endocrin. & Metab., 24: 431-441) cited was pretty impressive.

For example, the San Antonio Heart Study recorded consumption of diet sodas and regular sugar sweetened sodas in 3,862 adults (average age 44) and measured the increase in BMI (a measure of obesity) over the next 7-8 years. That study found:

  • Individuals consuming >21 diet sodas/week were almost 2-fold more likely to become overweight or obese than individuals consuming no sodas.
  • There was a clear dose response effect, with a 41% increased risk of becoming overweight or obese for each can or bottle of diet soda consumed/day.
  • The increase in weight associated with diet soda consumption was just as great for those who were at normal weight at the beginning of the study as it was for those who were obese at the beginning of the study.
  • In this study the increase in weight associated with soda consumption was greater for diet sodas than it was for regular sodas.

Another major study (Circulation, 116: 480-488, 2007) recorded diet and regular soda consumption in 6039 participants in the Framingham Heart Study (average age 53) and measured the increase in obesity (along with other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes) over the next 4 years. This study found:

  • Individuals consuming one or more sodas/day had a 48% increased risk of becoming obese compared to people with infrequent soda consumption.
  • In this study the weight increase associated with soda consumption was virtually the same for diet sodas and regular sodas.

Are These Studies True?

Diet SodaThese, and similar studies have been criticized because they are looking at associations, which do not prove cause-and-effect. For example, it’s not always clear whether the people in those studies gained weight because they were consuming diet sodas or consumed diet sodas because they were overweight.

That argument is less persuasive for the San Antonio Heart Study, because the weight gain associated with diet soda consumption was also seen with people who were at normal weight at the beginning of the study. Still there is a need for good double blind, placebo controlled intervention studies.

There have been very few intervention studies in which one group of subjects were told to drink only diet sodas and the other group only regular sodas. Unfortunately, in those studies the total caloric intake of the diet soda group was also restricted. So while the diet soda group did lose weight, it’s not clear whether that weight loss was due to the diet sodas or the overall caloric restriction of the diet.

You may have also seen the recent headlines from a study showing that people consuming diet sodas gained no more weight than people consuming water (Obesity, 22: 1415-1421, 2014). But once again, both groups were given detailed instructions on how to restrict total calories. Almost any diet will work if you have a dietitian looking over your shoulder and telling you how to restrict calories.

So what is the average consumer to think? On the one hand, dietitians and health professionals are telling you to drink diet sodas if you want to lose weight. On the other hand, you keep seeing these headlines saying the diet sodas may not help you lose weight or may even cause you to gain weight.

Of all the recent blogs and online articles on the topic, the only one I actually recommend reading is from WebMD (http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/diet-sodas-and-weight-gain-not-so-fast).

WebMD often adheres to the AMA line, but I found this to be a very balanced analysis of the science behind the question of whether diet sodas help or hinder weight loss.

How Could Diet Sodas Possibly Cause Weight Gain?

The million dollar question is: How could diet sodas possibly cause weight gain? After all, they contain no calories. I think the most useful perspective from the Web MD article is that it’s probably not the diet sodas themselves that cause weight gain. It’s what we eat with the diet sodas that cause the weight gain. Here are a couple of quotes I found particularly enlightening.

Dr. Barry Popkin, a colleague from the University of North Carolina, calls it the “Big Mac and Diet Coke” mentality. He says: “Especially in America, we have a lot of people who eat high-fat, high-sugar diets, but also drink diet sodas.”

Why is that? Dr. David Katz from Yale University has research suggesting that artificial sweeteners may condition people to want to eat more sweet foods. He says: “Our taste buds don’t really differentiate between sweet in sugar and sweet from, say, aspartame. The evidence that this sweet taste is addictive is pretty clear. What I have seen in my patients is that those who drink diet soda are more vulnerable to processed foods with added sugars.”

There is some independent evidence to back up that hypothesis. For example, one recent study showed that rats given artificially sweetened yoghurt with their rat chow ate more rat chow and gained more weight than rats fed sugar-sweetened yoghurt with their rat chow (Behavioral Neuroscience, 122: 161-173, 2008). Another study in humans showed that consumption of artificial sweeteners activates a portion of the brain associated with cravings for sweets (Physiology & Behavior, 107: 560-567, 2012).

However, this viewpoint is controversial. Some experts think that the association between diet sodas and weight gain is psychological rather than physiological. Simply put, when people consume diet drinks they feel that they can splurge elsewhere.

The Bottom Line

  • Once again there is no magic bullet. There is no good evidence that diet sodas will help you lose weight unless you carefully control the calories in everything else you eat. And, diet sodas may just cause you to gain weight because they make you crave the very foods that are worst for your waistline.
  • In addition, there may be other good reasons not to consume diet sodas. For example, recent studies have shown that consumption of diet sodas may be linked to increased risk of metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes (Circulation, 116: 480-488, 2007) and heart disease (see Does Sugar Cause Heart Disease? and Can Soft Drinks Cause Heart Disease?
  • My recommendations are to drink water, herbal teas, unsweetened tea & coffee or unsweetened mineral water or seltzer – perhaps with a splash of fruit juice.
  • Finally, there is no substitute for a healthy, calorie controlled diet; exercise; and lifestyle change if you want to lose weight and keep it off.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (1)

  • Mike Lucas

    |

    Great info Dr. Chaney! Thank you for the insight! Much appreciated!

    Mike & Jenn
    Shaklee Distributors
    Superior, WI

    Reply

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Latest Article

One of the Little known Causes of Headaches

Posted August 15, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Your Sleeping Position May Be Causing Your Headaches!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Can sleeping position be one of the causes of headaches?  

A Sleeping position that has your head tilted puts pressure on your spinal cord and will cause headaches. I’ve seen it happen hundreds of times, and the reasoning is so logical it’s easy to understand.

causes of headachesYour spinal cord runs from your brain, through each of your vertebrae, down your arms and legs. Nerves pass out of the vertebrae and go to every cell in your body, including each of your organs. When you are sleeping it is important to keep your head, neck, and spine in a horizontal plane so you aren’t straining the muscles that insert into your vertebrae.

The graphic above is a close-up of your skull and the cervical (neck) vertebrae. Your nerves are shown in yellow, and your artery is shown in red.  Consider what happens if you hold your head to one side for hours. You can notice that the nerves and artery will likely be press upon. Also, since your spinal cord comes down the inside of the vertebrae, it will also be impinged.

In 2004 the Archives of Internal Medicine published an article stating that 1 out of 13 people have morning headaches. It’s interesting to note that the article never mentions the spinal cord being impinged by the vertebrae. That’s a major oversight!

Muscles merge into tendons, and the tendons insert into the bone.  As you stayed in the tilted position for hours, the muscles actually shortened to the new length.  Then you try to turn over, but the short muscles are holding your cervical vertebrae tightly, and they can’t lengthen.

The weight of your head pulls on the vertebrae, putting even more pressure on your spinal cord and nerves.  Plus, the tight muscles are pulling on the bones, causing pain on the bone.

Your Pillow is Involved in Your Sleeping Position and the Causes of  Headaches

sleep left side

The analogy I always use is; just as pulling your hair hurts your scalp, the muscle pulling on the tendons hurts the bone where it inserts.  In this case it is your neck muscles putting a strain on your cervical bones.  For example, if you sleep on your left side and your pillow is too thick, your head will be tilted up toward the ceiling. This position tightens the muscles on the right side of your neck.

sleeping in car and desk

Dozing off while sitting in a car waiting for someone to arrive, or while working for hours at your desk can also horizontal line sleepcause headaches. The pictures above show a strain on the neck when you fall asleep without any support on your neck. Both of these people will wake up with a headache, and with stiffness in their neck.

The best sleeping position to prevent headaches is to have your pillow adjusted so your head, neck, and spine are in a horizontal line. Play with your pillows, putting two thin pillows into one case if necessary. If your pillow is too thick try to open up a corner and pull out some of the stuffing.

 

sleeping on stomachSleeping on Your Back & Stomach

If you sleep on your back and have your head on the mattress, your spine is straight. All you need is a little neck pillow for support, and a pillow under your knees.

Stomach sleeping is the worst sleeping position for not only headaches, but so many other aches and pains. It’s a tough habit to break, but it can be done. This sleeping position deserves its own blog, which I will do in the future.

 

Treating the Muscles That Cause Headaches

sleeping position causes of headachesAll of the muscles that originate or insert into your cervical vertebrae, and many that insert into your shoulder and upper back, need to be treated.  The treatments are all taught in Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, in the neck and shoulder chapters.  Here is one treatment that will help you get relief.

Take either a tennis ball or the Perfect Ball (which really is Perfect because it has a solid center and soft outside) and press into your shoulder as shown.  You are treating a muscle called Levator Scapulae which pulls your cervical vertebrae out of alignment when it is tight.

Hold the press for about 30 seconds, release, and then press again.

Your pillow is a key to neck pain and headaches caused by your sleeping position.  It’s worth the time and energy to investigate how you sleep and correct your pillow.  I believe this blog will help you find the solution and will insure you have restful sleep each night.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

 

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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