Are There Health Benefits of Beetroot Juice for Athletes?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Exercise, Food and Health

Should You Add Beetroot Juice To Your Training Diet?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

health benefits of beetroot juiceWhen I saw the headline “Beetroot Juice May Boost Aerobic Fitness For Swimmers” I did a double take. Could something as simple as eating more beets actually improve exercise performance? Are there real health benefits of beetroot juice for athletes?  So I looked up recent papers on the topic.  But, before I review those I should give you a little science behind the idea that beetroot juice might affect performance.

The Science Behind Beetroot Juice And Exercise

Nitric oxide is a colorless, odorless gas that serves as an important signaling molecule in the human body. Among its many beneficial effects is increased blood flow to muscle. This increased blood flow appears to be preferentially distributed to the type 2 muscle fibers which support moderate to high intensity exercise. Thus, nutrients that enhance nitric oxide levels might be expected to improve moderate to high intensity exercise.

There are two naturally occurring pathways for producing nitric oxide in the body. The first pathway utilizes arginine, an amino acid found in dietary protein. The second pathway utilizes nitrates, which are found in fruits and vegetables. The best dietary sources of nitrates are beetroot, spinach and other leafy green vegetables.

Arginine has been widely used in sports supplements for some time to enhance performance. However, clinical studies on arginine have been mixed, with some showing small enhancements in performance and others showing no significant effect. Most experts now think that the benefits of arginine are primarily seen with untrained or moderately trained athletes (people like you and me) – not for highly trained or elite athletes.

It is logical that natural sources of nitrates, such as beetroot juice, would have a similar beneficial effect on exercise, but it is only in the last couple of years that scientists have started to evaluate that possibility. I looked up six recent publications for this review.

Does Beetroot Juice Improve Exercise Performance?

Study # 1: In this study (Bailey et al, J. Appl. Physiol., 107: 1144-1155, 2009) untrained men (aged 19-38) were given beetroot juice or a placebo for 6 days and then put through a series moderate-intensity and severe-intensity step exercise tests on days 4-6. The amount of oxygen required to support the moderate intensity exercise was decreased by 19% in the beetroot juice group. For severe intensity exercise, the amount of oxygen needed to support the exercise was decreased by 23% and the time to exhaustion was increased by 16% in the beetroot juice group. Those effects were statistically significant.

Study # 2: In this study (Kelly et al, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 304: R73-83, 2013) untrained older adults (aged 60-70) were given beetroot juice or a placebo for 3 days and then put through a treadmill exercise test. Resting blood pressure and oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise were significantly improved in the beetroot group.

Study # 3: In this study (Breese et al, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 305: R1441-14505, 2013) physically active subjects were given beetroot juice or a placebo for 6 days and then put through a double step exercise protocol involving a transition from stationary to moderate intensity exercise followed immediately by a transition from moderate intensity to severe intensity exercise. No significant differences were observed between the beetroot juice group and the placebo group during the transition from stationary to moderate intensity exercise. However, for the transition from moderate intensity to high intensity exercise both efficiency of oxygen utilization and endurance were increased by 22% in the beetroot juice group.

does beetroot juice improve exercise performance

Study # 4: In this study (Pinna et al, Nutrients, 6: 605-615, 2014) moderately trained male master swimmers were given beetroot juice for 6 days. Swimming tests were conducted at the beginning and end of the 6 day period. After 6 days of beetroot juice supplementation, the workload was increased by 6% and the energy cost was decreased by 12% when the swimmers were performing at their maximal capacity.

Studies # 5 & 6: These studies (Lanceley et al, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47: doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.8; Hoon et al, Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform., 9: 615-620, 2014) were both done with highly trained athletes and no significant improvement in performance was observed. This is fully consistent with previous studies utilizing arginine supplements.

In short, these studies suggest that beetroot juice is similar to arginine supplements in that:

  • It improves exercise performance at moderate to severe exercise levels, but not at low exercise levels.
  • It improves exercise performance for untrained or moderately trained athletes, but not for highly trained athletes.
  • The effects are modest. However, you should keep in mind that even a 20% increase in endurance during high intensity exercise can result in a significant incremental increase in muscle mass if the exercise is repeated on a regular basis.

What Are The Strengths & Weaknesses Of These Studies?

Strengths: The strengths of these studies are:

  • Most of the studies were double-blind, placebo controlled studies
  • The studies were internally consistent and were consistent with previous studies done with arginine supplements.

Weaknesses: The weaknesses of these studies are:

  • The studies were all very small and were of short duration. Larger, longer term studies are needed to validate the results of these studies.

So, are there health benefits of beetroot juice for athletes?

The Bottom Line:

  1. Nitrates and arginine are both converted to nitric oxide in the body, so it is plausible that they will have similar effects.
  1. Arginine supplements have been around for years and appear to have a modest affect on exercise performance with untrained and moderately trained athletes, but not with highly trained athletes. This is most likely because one of the effects of training is to increase blood supply to the muscles. Thus, highly trained athletes already have enhanced blood flow to the muscles, and the effect of arginine supplementation on blood flow is less noticeable.
  1. Nitrate supplements are just starting to be evaluated for their effects on exercise performance. Most of the research so far has been with beetroot juice, but the results should be similar for any naturally sourced nitrate supplement.
  1. The clinical studies published so far suggest that nitrate supplements are similar to arginine supplements in that they have a modest effect on high intensity exercise in untrained and moderate trained athletes (people like most of us). They appear to have little or no effect for highly trained athletes. Thus, the effect of nitrate supplements on exercise appears to be very similar to the effect of arginine supplements on exercise.
  1. Most of the studies performed to date have been small, short duration studies. They need to be validated by larger, longer term studies.
  1. If the effects of nitrate supplementation published to date are accurate they should be most beneficial for weight training and high intensity exercise because even modest increases in exercise endurance can result in an incremental increase in muscle mass and strength over time.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Trackback from your site.

Leave a comment

Recent Videos From Dr. Steve Chaney

READ THE ARTICLE
READ THE ARTICLE

Latest Article

One of the Little known Causes of Headaches

Posted August 15, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Your Sleeping Position May Be Causing Your Headaches!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Can sleeping position be one of the causes of headaches?  

A Sleeping position that has your head tilted puts pressure on your spinal cord and will cause headaches. I’ve seen it happen hundreds of times, and the reasoning is so logical it’s easy to understand.

causes of headachesYour spinal cord runs from your brain, through each of your vertebrae, down your arms and legs. Nerves pass out of the vertebrae and go to every cell in your body, including each of your organs. When you are sleeping it is important to keep your head, neck, and spine in a horizontal plane so you aren’t straining the muscles that insert into your vertebrae.

The graphic above is a close-up of your skull and the cervical (neck) vertebrae. Your nerves are shown in yellow, and your artery is shown in red.  Consider what happens if you hold your head to one side for hours. You can notice that the nerves and artery will likely be press upon. Also, since your spinal cord comes down the inside of the vertebrae, it will also be impinged.

In 2004 the Archives of Internal Medicine published an article stating that 1 out of 13 people have morning headaches. It’s interesting to note that the article never mentions the spinal cord being impinged by the vertebrae. That’s a major oversight!

Muscles merge into tendons, and the tendons insert into the bone.  As you stayed in the tilted position for hours, the muscles actually shortened to the new length.  Then you try to turn over, but the short muscles are holding your cervical vertebrae tightly, and they can’t lengthen.

The weight of your head pulls on the vertebrae, putting even more pressure on your spinal cord and nerves.  Plus, the tight muscles are pulling on the bones, causing pain on the bone.

Your Pillow is Involved in Your Sleeping Position and the Causes of  Headaches

sleep left side

The analogy I always use is; just as pulling your hair hurts your scalp, the muscle pulling on the tendons hurts the bone where it inserts.  In this case it is your neck muscles putting a strain on your cervical bones.  For example, if you sleep on your left side and your pillow is too thick, your head will be tilted up toward the ceiling. This position tightens the muscles on the right side of your neck.

sleeping in car and desk

Dozing off while sitting in a car waiting for someone to arrive, or while working for hours at your desk can also horizontal line sleepcause headaches. The pictures above show a strain on the neck when you fall asleep without any support on your neck. Both of these people will wake up with a headache, and with stiffness in their neck.

The best sleeping position to prevent headaches is to have your pillow adjusted so your head, neck, and spine are in a horizontal line. Play with your pillows, putting two thin pillows into one case if necessary. If your pillow is too thick try to open up a corner and pull out some of the stuffing.

 

sleeping on stomachSleeping on Your Back & Stomach

If you sleep on your back and have your head on the mattress, your spine is straight. All you need is a little neck pillow for support, and a pillow under your knees.

Stomach sleeping is the worst sleeping position for not only headaches, but so many other aches and pains. It’s a tough habit to break, but it can be done. This sleeping position deserves its own blog, which I will do in the future.

 

Treating the Muscles That Cause Headaches

sleeping position causes of headachesAll of the muscles that originate or insert into your cervical vertebrae, and many that insert into your shoulder and upper back, need to be treated.  The treatments are all taught in Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, in the neck and shoulder chapters.  Here is one treatment that will help you get relief.

Take either a tennis ball or the Perfect Ball (which really is Perfect because it has a solid center and soft outside) and press into your shoulder as shown.  You are treating a muscle called Levator Scapulae which pulls your cervical vertebrae out of alignment when it is tight.

Hold the press for about 30 seconds, release, and then press again.

Your pillow is a key to neck pain and headaches caused by your sleeping position.  It’s worth the time and energy to investigate how you sleep and correct your pillow.  I believe this blog will help you find the solution and will insure you have restful sleep each night.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

 

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

UA-43257393-1