How to Live a Healthy Lifestyle Longer

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Healthy Lifestyle, Live Longer

Wish I Knew At 20

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

how to live a healthy lifestyleI wish I knew how to live a healthy lifestyle when I was 20.  But, I was a typical 20-year-old American. I ate lots of junk food. I thought an occasional tennis game was all the exercise I needed. I never really thought about what I was doing. I just did what all my friends did. If I hadn’t changed what I was doing, I might have had a short, unhealthy life.

Of course, I did change, and those changes made all the difference. Now I’m in my 70s, and I’m in perfect health. I have no diseases. Even the allergies I had when I was younger have gone away as I improved my diet and lifestyle. I am on no medications. I have the blood pressure of a 16-year-old.

I call this article “How to Live a Healthy Lifestyle:  Wish I Knew At 20”, but this article isn’t about me. I wrote this article for all the other 20-year-olds who know as little about nutrition and health as I did at 20. I also wrote this article for all those people who haven’t changed – those people with the same diet and lifestyle they had at 20. It’s never too late to change and begin to live a healthy lifestyle.

 

How to Live a Healthy Lifestyle:  What I Wish I Knew At 20

 

Here are 15 tips I would pass along to all the 20-year-olds, even those 20-year-olds in older bodies:

#1: You Are In Charge: You have a brain. You have free will. You don’t have to do what everyone else is doing. It is time to start thinking about what your health and your life will be like if you don’t change. More importantly, it is time to start thinking about what your health and your life could be like if you do make positive changes.

#2: It Matters: I can’t emphasize strongly enough how important it is to make positive changes in your diet, your exercise, and your overall lifestyle. We know all the major killer diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, etc) are affected by diet and lifestyle. However, it is much more than avoiding disease. As you age, your quality of life is dramatically affected by how much you have moved and what you have put in your mouth over your lifetime.

If you have any question about how important healthy eating can be, take time to view documentary movies like “Forks Over Knives” or “Eating You Alive.” I’m not necessarily advocating that extreme a diet, but these films will get you thinking.

fad diets#3: Avoid the Fads: Once you have decided to adopt a healthier lifestyle, the hardest part is deciding which changes you should make. You will need to practice a lot of due diligence. There is a lot of hype and misinformation out there. There is a new fad every week. First, it’s low fat. Then it’s low carb. Then it’s no bananas before noon on Thursdays (I’m joking here, but you get the point. Some of the diets are just plain weird).

Most of those diet recommendations sound plausible. They all have their advocates who are only too happy to offer their testimonials. My advice: If it sounds too good to be true, avoid it. If they tell you the medical profession is trying to keep their diet a secret, avoid it. The consensus advice of the medical and nutrition communities may seem boring, but it is generally based on dozens of clinical studies. It is much more likely to be true than advice from your friends, your trainer, or that blogger who values controversy more than accuracy.

#4: We Are All Different: Health recommendations are usually based on dozens of clinical studies. But, here is the secret that only scientists know. Clinical studies report averages, but none of us are average. Let me give you an example. Let’s say you wanted to do a clinical study to evaluate whether a low-carb diet helps people lose weight. You might enroll several hundred people in your study. If you put them all on an identical low-carb diet for 8 weeks, some of them would lose weight. Others would gain weight. At the end of the 8 weeks, you would average all weight changes together and report the average weight loss.

For the sake of argument, let’s say the average weight loss was 6.4 pounds. That’s fine except that not a single person in the study lost exactly 6.4 pounds, and some may have even gained weight. The bottom line is that your results may be different from conventional wisdom. Your results may be different from your friend’s. You will need to find out what works best for you.

#5: You Don’t Have To Change All At Once: Some people have an iron will and can make drastic changes overnight. Most of us aren’t like that. If we try to change too many things at once, we become overwhelmed. We become discouraged. Sometimes we quit. Think of this as a marathon, not a sprint. Make “Change One” your slogan. Change one thing each week until you are where you want to be. One week it may be replacing sugary desserts with fruits. Another week it may be adding a green vegetable to your dinner plate. Over time, all those small changes will result in a totally different lifestyle.

processed foods#6: Your Tastes Will Change: The first time you choose a low sodium food, it will taste bland. Over time you will come to enjoy the subtle flavors of the food and will come to dislike added salt. The first time you switch from whole milk to low fat milk it will taste like water. Over time you will learn to appreciate low fat milk, and whole milk will taste greasy. I could give lots more examples, but you get the point.

#7: Processed Foods, Sweets, and Sodas Will Kill You: I’m being dramatic here, but they are bad for your health. They have no place as part of a healthy diet. Replace the processed foods and sweets with whole foods. Replace the sodas with water or herbal teas.

#8: It’s What You Do Every Day That Matters: Refined grains, pastries and sweets should be only an occasional indulgence. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should be the mainstay of your everyday diet. Eat a plant-based diet as much as possible.

#9: Protein Is Important, Especially As We Get Older: Low fat or vegetarian protein sources should be your first choice. Chicken (with the skin removed) and fish are the healthiest meats. Nuts, beans & seeds are excellent vegetarian protein sources, especially in combination. Think of red meats as no more than an occasional indulgence.

#10: Avoid The Center Of The Supermarket: This is my only shopping advice. In general, supermarkets are arranged with real foods around the edges and the processed foods in the middle.

organic foods#11: Choose Organic: Our planet has become so polluted that is has become impossible to completely avoid toxic chemicals in our environment. They are in our air, our water, our soil, and our homes. Our only defense is to be informed consumers and avoid them whenever possible. If the cost of organic produce is an issue for you, be selective. There is a Dirty Dozen  list of fruits and vegetables that are the ones most likely to be contaminated with pesticides and herbicides.

#12: Get Lots Of Exercise: Most experts recommend at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise 5 times per week. More is even better. For best results choose a combination of aerobic and weight bearing exercise.

#13: Control Your Weight: We are in the midst of an obesity epidemic. The problem is that 80% of us are genetically predisposed to become obese if we eat a typical American diet and follow a typical American lifestyle. The solution isn’t the fad diet du jour. The solution is to change our diet and our lifestyle. For most of us, the changes I have outlined above will allow you to gradually attain & maintain your ideal weight.

#14: Supplementation Plays A Role: Supplementation is not a magic bullet, but it is an important component of a holistic wellness program. Some of us need supplementation to fill in nutritional gaps in our diet. Some of us need supplementation because of increased needs, either because of disease or genetics. Some of us choose supplementation to achieve optimal health.

#15: Enjoy The Journey: If you think of a healthy lifestyle as depriving you of the things you enjoy, you will avoid it. Instead, think of it as an adventure. Have fun exploring new fruits and vegetables. Try cooking with herbs and spices. Seek out restaurants and recipes that turn healthy foods into a gourmet experience. Find exercises that you actually enjoy.  Now you know how to live a healthy lifestyle and for longer.

What Does This Mean For You?

This was not meant to be a diet book. Because each of us is different, I have shared 15 tips rather than a rigid diet plan that everyone should follow. However, I suspect many of you are scratching your heads and saying: “Where do I go from here?”. For those of you who would like more specific recommendations for your new, healthier lifestyle, I recommend my recent article “What Is The Best Diet For You?”.

 

The Bottom Line

 

In this article, I have shared 15 tips for a longer, healthier life. They are:

  • You are in charge.
  • It matters.
  • Avoid the fads.
  • We are all different.
  • You don’t have to change all at once.
  • Your tastes will change.
  • Processed foods, sweets and sodas will kill you.
  • It’s what you do every day that matters.
  • Protein is important, especially as we age,
  • Avoid the center of the supermarket.
  • Choose Organic.
  • Get lots of exercise.
  • Control your weight.
  • Supplementation plays a role.
  • Enjoy the journey.

For more details, read the article above and find out how to live a healthy lifestyle longer.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (3)

  • Felicia K Redmond

    |

    I have seek advice to use a defense mechanism to Improve bad eating habits, weightloss, and health concerns. I decided to follow the pathway 15 tips and Avoid Fads and eliminate sweets. I am learning to eat dinner early before a walk during the evening hours. I am still “stuck” when making a decision whether I am a Vegetarian or Vegan food water.

    Reply

    • Dr. Steve Chaney

      |

      Dear Felicia,

      As long as you eliminate sodas, fast & convenience foods, refined carbs and sugar, it really doesn’t matter whether you choose Vegan or Vegetarian. Both are healthy.

      Dr. Chaney

      Reply

  • Mimi Vollum

    |

    Really nicely done, Steve! I love all of your “Tips…”

    Reply

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Latest Article

Should We Use Supplements For Cardiovascular Health?

Posted July 10, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Are You Just Wasting Your Money On Supplements?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

supplements for cardiovascular health wast moneyYou’ve seen the headlines. “Recent Study Finds Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Don’t Lower Heart Disease Risk.”  You are being told that supplements are of no benefit to you. They are a waste of money. You should follow a healthy diet instead. Is all of this true?

If I were like most bloggers, I would give you a simple yes or no answer that would be only partially correct. Instead, I am going to put the study behind these headlines into perspective. I am going to give you a deeper understanding of supplementation, so you can make better choices for your health.

 Should we use supplements for cardiovascular health?

In today’s article I will give you a brief overview of the subject. Here are the topics I will cover today:

  • Is this fake news?
  • Did the study ask the right questions?
  • Is this a question of “Garbage In – Garbage Out?
  • Reducing Heart Disease Risk. What you need to know.

All these topics are covered in much more detail (with references) in my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths”, which will be published this fall.

 

How Was This Study Done?

supplements for cardiovascular healthThis study (D.J.A. Jenkins et al, Journal of the American College Of Cardiology, 71: 2540-2584, 2018 ) was a meta-analysis. Simply put, that means the authors combined the results of many previous studies into a single database to increase the statistical power of their conclusions. This study included 127 randomized control trials published between 2012 and December 2017. These were all studies that included supplementation and looked at cardiovascular end points, cancer end points or overall mortality.

Before looking at the results, it is instructive to look at the strengths and weaknesses of the study. Rather than giving you my interpretation, let me summarize what the authors said about strengths and weaknesses of their own study.

The strengths are obvious. Randomized control trials are considered the gold standard of evidence-based medicine, but they have their weaknesses. Here is what the authors said about the limitations of their study:

  • “Randomized control trials are of shorter duration, whereas longer duration studies might be required to fully capture chronic disease risk.”
  • “Dose-response data were not usually available [from the randomized control studies included in their analysis]. However, larger studies would allow the effect of dose to be assessed.”

There are some other limitations of this study, which I will point out below.

Is This Fake News?

supplements for cardiovascular health fake newsWhen I talk about “fake news” I am referring to the headlines, not to the study behind the headlines. The headlines were definitive: “Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Don’t Lower Heart Disease Risk.” However, when you read the study the reality is quite different:

  • In contrast to the negative headlines, the study reported:
    • Folic acid supplementation decreased stroke risk by 20% and overall heart disease risk by 17%.
    • B complex supplements containing folic acid, B6, and B12 decreased stroke risk by 10%.
    • That’s a big deal, but somehow the headlines forgot to mention it.
  • The supplements that had no significant effect on heart disease risk (multivitamins, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) were ones that would not be expected to lower heart disease risk. There was little evidence from previous studies of decreased risk. Furthermore, there is no plausible mechanism for supposing they might decrease heart disease risk.
  • The study did not include vitamin E or omega-3 supplements, which are the ones most likely to prove effective in decreasing heart disease risk when the studies are done properly (see below).

Did The Study Ask The Right Question?

Most of the studies included in this meta-analysis were asking whether a supplement decreased heart disease risk or mortality for everyone. Simply put, the studies started with a group of generally healthy Americans and asked whether supplementation had a significant effect on disease risk for everyone in that population.

That is the wrong question. We should not expect supplementation to benefit everyone equally. Instead, we should be asking who is most likely to benefit from supplementation and design our clinical studies to test whether those people benefit from supplementation.

supplements for cardiovascular health diagramI have created the graphic on the right as a guide to help answer the question of “Who is most likely to benefit from supplementation?”. Let me summarize each of the points using folic acid as the example.

 

Poor Diet: It only makes sense that those people who are deficient in folate from foods are the most likely to benefit from folic acid supplementation. Think about it for a minute. Would you really expect people who are already getting plenty of folate from their diet to obtain additional benefits from folic acid supplementation?

The NIH estimates that around 20% of US women of childbearing age are deficient in folic acid. For other segments of our population, dietary folate insufficiency ranges from 5-10%. Yet, most studies of folic acid supplementation lump everyone together – even though 80-95% of the US population is already getting enough folate through foods, food fortification, and supplementation. It is no wonder most studies fail to find a beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation.

The authors of the meta-analysis I discussed above said that the beneficial effects of folic acid they saw might have been influenced by a very large Chinese study, because a much higher percentage of Chinese are deficient in folic acid. They went on to say that the Chinese study needed to be repeated in this country.

In fact, the US study has already been done. A large study called “The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)” study reported that folic acid supplementation did not reduce heart disease risk in the whole population. However, when the study focused on the subgroup of subjects who were folate-deficient at the beginning of the study, folic acid supplementation significantly decreased their risk of heart attack and cardiovascular death.  This would seem to suggest using supplements for cardiovascular health is a good idea.

Increased Need: There are many factors that increase the need for certain nutrients. However, for the sake of simplicity, let’s only focus on medications. Medications that interfere with folic acid metabolism include anticonvulsants, metformin (used to treat diabetes), methotrexate and sulfasalazine (used to treat severe inflammation), birth control pills, and some diuretics. Use of these medications is not a concern when the diet is adequate. However, when you combine medication use with a folate-deficient diet, health risks are increased and supplementation with folic acid is more likely to be beneficial.

Genetic Predisposition: The best known genetic defect affecting folic acid metabolism is MTHFR. MTHFR deficiency does not mean you have a specific need for methylfolate. However, it does increase your need for folic acid. Again, this is not a concern when the diet is adequate. However, when you combine MTHFR deficiency with a folate-deficient diet, health risks are increased and supplementation with folic acid is more likely to be beneficial. I cover this topic in great detail in my upcoming book, “Slaying The Supplement Myths”. In the meantime, you might wish to view my video, “The Truth About Methyl Folate.”

Diseases: An underlying disease or predisposition to disease often increases the need for one or more nutrients that help reduce disease risk. The best examples of this are two major studies on the effect of vitamin E on heart disease risk in women. Both studies found no effect of vitamin E on heart disease risk in the whole population. However, one study reported that vitamin E reduced heart disease risk in the subgroup of women who were post-menopausal (when the risk of heart disease skyrockets). The other study found that vitamin E reduced heart attack risk in the subgroup of women who had pre-existing heart disease at the beginning of the study.

Finally, if you look at the diagram closely, you will notice a red circle in the middle. When two or three of these factors overlap, that is the “sweet spot” where supplementation is almost certain to make a difference and it may be a good idea to use supplements for cardiovascular health.

Is This A Question Of “Garbage In, Garbage Out”?

supplements for cardiovascular health garbage in outUnfortunately, most clinical studies focus on the “Does everyone benefit from supplementation question?” rather than the “Who benefits from supplementation?” question.

In addition, most clinical studies of supplementation are based on the drug model. They are studying supplementation with a single vitamin or mineral, as if it were a drug. That’s unfortunate, because vitamins and minerals work together synergistically. What we need are more studies of holistic supplementation approaches.

Until these two things change, most supplement studies are doomed to failure. They are doomed to give negative results. In addition, meta-analyses based on these faulty supplement studies will fall victim to what computer programmers refer to as “Garbage In, Garbage Out”. If the data going into the analysis is faulty, the data coming out of the study will be equally faulty. It won’t be worth the paper it is written on. If you are looking for personal guidance on supplementation, this study falls into that category.

 

Should We Use Supplements For Cardiovascular Health?

 

If you want to know whether supplements decrease heart disease risk for everyone, this meta-analysis is clear. Folic acid may decrease the risk of stroke and heart disease. A B complex supplement may decrease the risk of stroke. All the other supplements they included in their analysis did not decrease heart disease risk, but the analysis did not include vitamin E and/or omega-3s.

However, if you want to know whether supplements decrease heart disease risk for you, this study provides no guidance. It did not ask the right questions.

I would be remiss, however, if I failed to point out that we know healthy diets can decrease heart disease risk. In the words of the authors: “The recent science-based report of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, also concerned with [heart disease] risk reduction, recommended 3 dietary patterns: 1) a healthy American diet low in saturated fat, trans fat, and meat, but high in fruits and vegetables; 2) a Mediterranean diet; and 3) a vegetarian diet. These diets, with their accompanying recommendations, continue the move towards more plant-based diets…” I cover the effect of diet on heart disease risk in detail in my book, “Slaying The Food Myths”.

 

The Bottom Line

 

You have probably seen the recent headlines proclaiming: “Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Don’t Lower Heart Disease Risk.” The study behind the headlines was a meta-analysis of 127 randomized control trials looking at the effect of supplementation on heart disease risk and mortality.

  • The headlines qualify as “fake news” because:
    • The study found that folic acid decreased stroke and heart disease risk, and B vitamins decreased stroke risk. Somehow the headlines forgot to mention that.
    • The study found that multivitamins, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C had no effect on heart disease risk. These are nutrients that were unlikely to decrease heart disease risk to begin with.
    • The study did not include vitamin E and omega-3s. These are nutrients that are likely to decrease heart disease risk when the studies are done properly.
  • The authors of the study stated that a major weakness of their study was that that randomized control studies included in their analysis were short term, whereas longer duration studies might be required to fully capture chronic disease risk.
  • The study behind the headlines is of little use for you as an individual because it asked the wrong question.
  • Most clinical studies focus on the “Does everyone benefit from supplementation question?” That is the wrong question. Instead we need more clinical studies focused on the “Who benefits from supplementation?” question. I discuss that question in more detail in the article above.
  • In addition, most clinical studies of supplementation are based on the drug model. They are studying supplementation with a single vitamin or mineral, as if it were a drug. That’s unfortunate, because vitamins and minerals work together synergistically. What we need are more studies of holistic supplementation approaches.
  • Until these two things change, most supplement studies are doomed to failure. They are doomed to give negative results. In addition, meta-analyses based on these faulty supplement studies will fall victim to what computer programmers refer to as “Garbage In, Garbage Out”. If the data going into the analysis is faulty, the data coming out of the study will be equally faulty. It won’t be worth the paper it is written on. If you are looking for personal guidance on supplementation, this study falls into that category.
  • If you want to know whether supplements decrease heart disease risk for everyone, this study is clear. Folic acid may decrease the risk of stroke and heart disease. A B-complex supplement may decrease the risk of stroke. All the other supplements they included in their analysis did not decrease heart disease risk, but they did not include vitamin E and/or omega-3s in their analysis.
  • If you want to know whether supplements decrease heart disease risk for you, this study provides no guidance. It did not ask the right questions.
  • However, we do know that healthy, plant-based diets can decrease heart disease risk. I cover heart healthy diets in detail in my book, “Slaying The Food Myths.”

 

For more details, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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