Magnesium Supplements Benefits | Reduce Diabetes Risk?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Food and Health, Supplements and Health

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

reduce diabetes riskI came across an article the other day suggesting that one of the magnesium supplements benefits might be  improved blood sugar control in pre-diabetics with low blood levels of magnesium (Guerrero-Romero et al, Diabetes & Metabolism, 41: 202-207, 2015). Considering that…

  • A 2014 CDC report stated that 1/3 of adult Americans are pre-diabetic, and…
  • Most people with pre-diabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less, and…
  • Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in this country, and…
  • 60% of Americans don’t get enough magnesium in their diets…

…this could be a really big deal! Because of this I scrutinized the paper very carefully and reviewed the literature on magnesium intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

 

Do Magnesium Supplements Improve Blood Sugar Control?

This was a relatively small study (116 adults, age 30-65), but it was well designed. All of the subjects had mild impairments in blood sugar control (i.e. were pre-diabetic), and all of them had low blood magnesium levels (≤1.8 mg/dL). This is a significant improvement over most previous studies of magnesium supplementation and blood sugar control because blood magnesium levels were not determined in many of those studies.

magnesium supplements benefitsThe study was double-blind, placebo controlled.Subjects received either 382 mg of magnesium or a placebo each day for 16 weeks, at which time blood sugar control and blood magnesium levels were re-measured. All subjects were put on a weight maintenance diet consisting of 55% healthy carbohydrates, 25% healthy fats, and 20% healthy proteins and told to exercise for at least 30 minutes three times per week.

Adherence to the diet and exercise regimen was 91% in both the supplement and placebo groups. Adherence to magnesium supplementation was 85% as measured by an increase in blood magnesium levels.

At the end of 16 weeks:

  • Improvement in blood sugar control was observed in 50% of the people in the magnesium group compared to 7% in the placebo group. This was significantly different.
  • Triglyceride levels were significantly decreased while HDL and blood magnesium levels were significantly increased in the magnesium group compared to the placebo group.
  • Side effects of magnesium supplementation were mild abdominal pain (7.6%) and diarrhea (6.0%).

The authors concluded:

  • “Our present results demonstrate the efficacy and safety of magnesium supplementation in the reduction of plasma glucose levels and in the improvement of glycemic status [blood sugar control] of pre-diabetic individuals who have low serum magnesium levels.”
  • “Our results support the hypothesis that, as a complement to lifestyle intervention programs, people with pre-diabetes and low blood levels of magnesium also should take magnesium supplements to decrease plasma glucose levels and potentially decrease the transition rate from pre-diabetes to diabetes.”

Magnesium and Blood Sugar Control

reduce blood sugarWhile the results of the recent study were impressive, it was a single, relatively small study, so I did a thorough review of the literature to put this study in perspective. This is what I found:

  • A major study that followed 2,582 participants enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study for 7 years (Hruby et al., Diabetes Care, 37: 419-427, 2014) concluded that those who consumed the most magnesium (400 mg/day) had a 50% reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those who consumed the least (240 mg/day).

Several other studies comparing magnesium intake to diabetes risk have come to similar conclusions.

  • A meta-analysis of 13 studies with 536,318 people (Dong et al, Diabetes Care, 34: 2116-2122, 2011) concluded that the risk of diabetes was decreased by 14% for every 100 mg of magnesium consumed.
  • Most, but not all, intervention studies like the one described above have shown that magnesium supplementation reduced blood glucose levels and improved blood sugar control.

However, most of these studies did not measure blood magnesium levels. This is a significant drawback because if the majority of subjects in a particular study had adequate blood magnesium levels at the beginning of the study, one would not expect additional magnesium to improve blood sugar control.

  • A study of 4257 participants in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Ford &Mokdad, Journal of Nutrition, 133: 2879-2882, 2003) concluded that around 60% of the adult US population was getting sub-optimal levels of magnesium from their diet.

The RDAs for magnesium range from 310-420 mg/day depending on age and gender, while intakes of magnesium ranged from 144-326 mg/day depending on age, gender and ethnicity. Those taking supplements had significantly greater magnesium intake than non-supplement users.

However, dietary recall studies almost always overestimate the percentage of the population that is deficient in any particular nutrient. Blood nutrient levels are usually considered a better indicator of nutrient deficiency, and some experts estimate that 20-30% of the US population may have blood levels of magnesium that are less than optimal.

Unfortunately, in the case of magnesium it is unclear whether even blood levels are an adequate indicator of nutrient status. That’s because only 1% of your body’s magnesium is found in the blood. The rest is locked up in your tissues where it is much more difficult to determine whether your magnesium status is adequate or not.

 

The Bottom Line

  • A recent study showed that magnesium supplementation improves blood sugar control in pre-diabetics with low blood magnesium levels. The authors concluded that magnesium supplementation along with lifestyle change may be effective in slowing the progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes.
  • This study is consistent with a number of previous studies suggesting that increased magnesium intake is associated with decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • This study is also consistent with the principle that supplementation works best in situations where there is a demonstrated need for a particular nutrient, in this case magnesium (the study participants were selected in part on the basis of low blood levels of magnesium).
  • Other studies have shown that around 60% of the population is getting inadequate magnesium from their diet.Dietary recall studies probably overestimate the percentage of the population that is magnesium deficient, but most experts agree that a significant percentage of the US population likely have less than optimal magnesium status.
  • You probably don’t need mega-doses of magnesium to support good blood sugar control. The clinical study described above used 382 mg/day of magnesium, but most dietary recall studies suggest that dietary intake of magnesium in this country is only 100-200 mg/day below RDA recommendations.
  • Assuring an adequate intake of magnesium is only one component of a holistic approach for reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Other important components are weight control, exercise, and a healthy diet that restricts sugars and starches.
  • Good dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables (5-6 servings = RDA), nuts (5-6 servings = RDA), orwhole wheat bread or brown rice (8-9 servings = RDA).
  • Supplementation with ≥300 mg of magnesium can cause gas, bloating and diarrhea in sensitive individuals. If you are supplementing with magnesium, I recommend a sustained release supplement.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (4)

  • MJ Lucas

    |

    Great info to share Dr. Cheney.

    MJ

    Reply

  • Bill Dunstan

    |

    The results of the study do not indicate the bio absorption of the supplementation that was given the participants over the eight year period. And did they compare different companies prior to the initiation of the study for the best bio absorbency of their supplements?

    Reply

    • Dr. Steve Chaney

      |

      Dear Bill,

      Magnesium salts are very soluble in water, so their bioavailability is generally high and relatively independent of the type of magnesium salt used in the supplement. Your question would be much more pertinent to calcium supplements.

      Dr. Chaney

      Reply

  • Carol Pontius

    |

    Very interesting….. as usual!! Thanks for ALL your good information!

    Reply

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Latest Article

How to Choose the Right Pillow

Posted April 17, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Wake Up Each Morning Pain Free

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

how to choose the right pillow without headachesThe way you sleep is often a key to discovering the cause of headaches and more. If you wake up with neck pain, a headache, or you suffer from ringing in your ears, dizziness, or ear pain, there is a good possibility that it may be caused by the way you are sleeping. Your pillow may be the culprit.  But if you need to know how to choose the right pillow for you, it’s easy.   It just takes a little “investigation.”

 

How to Choose the Right Pillow if You Sleep On Your Side

Your head, neck, and spine need to always stay in a nice straight line, just as it is when you are standing up, but that takes a little thought and understanding of the way you sleep.  So, get comfy in your bed and then notice how your head is resting.

how to choose the right pillow to sleep painfreeIf you sleep on your side, your pillow needs to be just the right size, so your head doesn’t point down toward the mattress (your pillow is too soft) or up to the ceiling (your pillow is too thick). Either of these positions will make the muscles on the side of your neck stay in the contracted position for hours and pull your vertebrae in that direction, especially when you try to turn over to your other side.

Your SCM Muscle May Cause Serious Problems

You also need to notice if you turn your head a bit, especially if you are turning into your pillow or turning your head up toward away from your pillow. In either of these two cases you will be causing your sternocleidomastoid (SCM for short) to be held shortened for hours.

Your SCM originates on your collarbone and inserts into the bone behind your ear.  When it contracts you turn your head to the opposite side. However, if the muscle is tight (for example, when you’ve held your head turned toward one side for an extended period of time) and then you bring your head back so you are facing forward, the tight muscle will pull on the bone behind your ear and cause havoc.

The symptoms for a tight SCM are tinnitus (ringing in the ear), dizziness, loss of equilibrium, ear pain, headaches, pain in the eye and around the skull, pain at the top of the head, and even pain in the throat. Amazing! What’s even more amazing is that it’s rare that this muscle is considered when a medical professional is searching for the cause of your symptoms.

These are the things to know when considering how to choose the right pillow if you sleep on your side.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Back

how to choose the right pillow for sleeping on your backIf you sleep on your back, your head should be on the mattress (not propped up with a pillow) and you should have a tiny support (like a folded washcloth) under your neck.  Or, you can have a wedge pillow that starts at your mid-back and gently raises your entire trunk and head up while still allowing your head and back to be in a straight line.

It’s always a challenge for people who toss and turn during the night, sometimes on their side and sometimes on their back.  The best thing I’ve found for this situation is to have the pillow below shoulder level so when you turn on your side your shoulder will automatically slide to the edge of the pillow while still supporting your head properly, and when you turn onto your back, the pillow will start at shoulder level so your head and neck are supported, but your head is being pushed in a way that causes your chin to move down to your chest.

hip pain causes and treatment pain freeIt’s tricky, but I can personally attest to the fact that it will work.  I can always tell when I’ve had my head tilted (I toss and turn during the night) because I will wake with a headache. When that happens I’m grateful that I know how to self-treat the muscles of my neck and shoulders so the headache is eliminated quickly.  If you already have Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living,  you can self-treat all your neck and shoulder muscles to release the tension.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Stomach

If you sleep on your stomach, this is the one position that is so bad that it behooves you to force yourself to change your position. Your head is turned to the side and held still for hours, putting a severe strain on all your cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Not only will this cause headaches, tinnitus, and a list of other pains, but it can cause problems down your entire spine. It can also impinge on the nerves that pass through the vertebrae on their way to your organs.

If you do sleep that way, let me know and I’ll give you some suggestions that work to change your habit of sleeping. It takes time and energy, but the results are worth the effort.

In every case, the way you sleep may cause neck pain that won’t go away until the pillow situation is resolved.

Now you should know how to choose the right pillow for the way you sleep.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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