Magnesium Supplements Benefits | Reduce Diabetes Risk?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Food and Health, Supplements and Health

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

reduce diabetes riskI came across an article the other day suggesting that one of the magnesium supplements benefits might be  improved blood sugar control in pre-diabetics with low blood levels of magnesium (Guerrero-Romero et al, Diabetes & Metabolism, 41: 202-207, 2015). Considering that…

  • A 2014 CDC report stated that 1/3 of adult Americans are pre-diabetic, and…
  • Most people with pre-diabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less, and…
  • Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in this country, and…
  • 60% of Americans don’t get enough magnesium in their diets…

…this could be a really big deal! Because of this I scrutinized the paper very carefully and reviewed the literature on magnesium intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

 

Do Magnesium Supplements Improve Blood Sugar Control?

This was a relatively small study (116 adults, age 30-65), but it was well designed. All of the subjects had mild impairments in blood sugar control (i.e. were pre-diabetic), and all of them had low blood magnesium levels (≤1.8 mg/dL). This is a significant improvement over most previous studies of magnesium supplementation and blood sugar control because blood magnesium levels were not determined in many of those studies.

magnesium supplements benefitsThe study was double-blind, placebo controlled.Subjects received either 382 mg of magnesium or a placebo each day for 16 weeks, at which time blood sugar control and blood magnesium levels were re-measured. All subjects were put on a weight maintenance diet consisting of 55% healthy carbohydrates, 25% healthy fats, and 20% healthy proteins and told to exercise for at least 30 minutes three times per week.

Adherence to the diet and exercise regimen was 91% in both the supplement and placebo groups. Adherence to magnesium supplementation was 85% as measured by an increase in blood magnesium levels.

At the end of 16 weeks:

  • Improvement in blood sugar control was observed in 50% of the people in the magnesium group compared to 7% in the placebo group. This was significantly different.
  • Triglyceride levels were significantly decreased while HDL and blood magnesium levels were significantly increased in the magnesium group compared to the placebo group.
  • Side effects of magnesium supplementation were mild abdominal pain (7.6%) and diarrhea (6.0%).

The authors concluded:

  • “Our present results demonstrate the efficacy and safety of magnesium supplementation in the reduction of plasma glucose levels and in the improvement of glycemic status [blood sugar control] of pre-diabetic individuals who have low serum magnesium levels.”
  • “Our results support the hypothesis that, as a complement to lifestyle intervention programs, people with pre-diabetes and low blood levels of magnesium also should take magnesium supplements to decrease plasma glucose levels and potentially decrease the transition rate from pre-diabetes to diabetes.”

Magnesium and Blood Sugar Control

reduce blood sugarWhile the results of the recent study were impressive, it was a single, relatively small study, so I did a thorough review of the literature to put this study in perspective. This is what I found:

  • A major study that followed 2,582 participants enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study for 7 years (Hruby et al., Diabetes Care, 37: 419-427, 2014) concluded that those who consumed the most magnesium (400 mg/day) had a 50% reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those who consumed the least (240 mg/day).

Several other studies comparing magnesium intake to diabetes risk have come to similar conclusions.

  • A meta-analysis of 13 studies with 536,318 people (Dong et al, Diabetes Care, 34: 2116-2122, 2011) concluded that the risk of diabetes was decreased by 14% for every 100 mg of magnesium consumed.
  • Most, but not all, intervention studies like the one described above have shown that magnesium supplementation reduced blood glucose levels and improved blood sugar control.

However, most of these studies did not measure blood magnesium levels. This is a significant drawback because if the majority of subjects in a particular study had adequate blood magnesium levels at the beginning of the study, one would not expect additional magnesium to improve blood sugar control.

  • A study of 4257 participants in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Ford &Mokdad, Journal of Nutrition, 133: 2879-2882, 2003) concluded that around 60% of the adult US population was getting sub-optimal levels of magnesium from their diet.

The RDAs for magnesium range from 310-420 mg/day depending on age and gender, while intakes of magnesium ranged from 144-326 mg/day depending on age, gender and ethnicity. Those taking supplements had significantly greater magnesium intake than non-supplement users.

However, dietary recall studies almost always overestimate the percentage of the population that is deficient in any particular nutrient. Blood nutrient levels are usually considered a better indicator of nutrient deficiency, and some experts estimate that 20-30% of the US population may have blood levels of magnesium that are less than optimal.

Unfortunately, in the case of magnesium it is unclear whether even blood levels are an adequate indicator of nutrient status. That’s because only 1% of your body’s magnesium is found in the blood. The rest is locked up in your tissues where it is much more difficult to determine whether your magnesium status is adequate or not.

 

The Bottom Line

  • A recent study showed that magnesium supplementation improves blood sugar control in pre-diabetics with low blood magnesium levels. The authors concluded that magnesium supplementation along with lifestyle change may be effective in slowing the progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes.
  • This study is consistent with a number of previous studies suggesting that increased magnesium intake is associated with decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • This study is also consistent with the principle that supplementation works best in situations where there is a demonstrated need for a particular nutrient, in this case magnesium (the study participants were selected in part on the basis of low blood levels of magnesium).
  • Other studies have shown that around 60% of the population is getting inadequate magnesium from their diet.Dietary recall studies probably overestimate the percentage of the population that is magnesium deficient, but most experts agree that a significant percentage of the US population likely have less than optimal magnesium status.
  • You probably don’t need mega-doses of magnesium to support good blood sugar control. The clinical study described above used 382 mg/day of magnesium, but most dietary recall studies suggest that dietary intake of magnesium in this country is only 100-200 mg/day below RDA recommendations.
  • Assuring an adequate intake of magnesium is only one component of a holistic approach for reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Other important components are weight control, exercise, and a healthy diet that restricts sugars and starches.
  • Good dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables (5-6 servings = RDA), nuts (5-6 servings = RDA), orwhole wheat bread or brown rice (8-9 servings = RDA).
  • Supplementation with ≥300 mg of magnesium can cause gas, bloating and diarrhea in sensitive individuals. If you are supplementing with magnesium, I recommend a sustained release supplement.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (4)

  • MJ Lucas

    |

    Great info to share Dr. Cheney.

    MJ

    Reply

  • Bill Dunstan

    |

    The results of the study do not indicate the bio absorption of the supplementation that was given the participants over the eight year period. And did they compare different companies prior to the initiation of the study for the best bio absorbency of their supplements?

    Reply

    • Dr. Steve Chaney

      |

      Dear Bill,

      Magnesium salts are very soluble in water, so their bioavailability is generally high and relatively independent of the type of magnesium salt used in the supplement. Your question would be much more pertinent to calcium supplements.

      Dr. Chaney

      Reply

  • Carol Pontius

    |

    Very interesting….. as usual!! Thanks for ALL your good information!

    Reply

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Latest Article

Relieve Hip Pain After Sitting or Driving

Posted June 20, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Relief is Just a Few Movements Away!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

relieve hip pain after sittingI’m on a long business trip, speaking and teaching in Tennessee and New York, and the drive from Sarasota, FL meant many hours of driving over several days.  One of my stops was to visit with Suzanne and Dr. Steve Chaney at their home in North Carolina.  It was that long drive that became the inspiration for this blog.

After all those hours of driving, my hip was really sore. It was painful to stand up. While talking to Suzanne and Dr. Chaney I was using my elbow to work on the sore area, and when we were discussing the blog for this month it only made sense to share this technique with you.  So, Dr. Chaney took pictures and I sat at his computer to write.  I thought others may want to how to relieve hip pain after sitting or driving for long periods.

What Causes Anterior Hip Pain?

As I’ve mentioned in posts in the past, sitting is the #1 cause of low back pain, and it also causes anterior hip pain (pain localized towards the front of the hip) because the muscles (psoas and iliacus) pass through the hip and insert into the tendons that then insert into the top of the thigh bone.  When hip pain reliefyou try to stand up, the tight muscle tendons will pull on your thigh bone.  The other thing that happens is the point where the muscle merges into the tendon will be very tight and tender to touch. You aren’t having pain at your hip or thigh bone, but at the muscular point where the muscle and tendon merge.

It’s a bit confusing to describe, but you’ll find it if you sit down and put your fingers onto the tip of your pelvis, then just slide your fingers down toward your thigh and out about 2”. The point is right along the crease where your leg meets your trunk.

The muscle you are treating is the Rectus Femoris, where it merges from the tendon into the muscle fibers.  Follow this link, thigh muscle, to see the muscle and it will be a bit easier to visualize.

You need to be pressing deeply into the muscle, like you’re trying to press the bone and the muscle just happens to be in the way.  Move your fingers around a bit and you’ll find it.

Easy Treatment for Anterior Hip Pain After Sitting

relieve hip painHere is an easy treatment for hip pain after sitting you can administer yourself.  First, sit as I am, with your leg out and slightly turned.

Find the tender point with your fingers and then put your elbow into it as shown.

It’s important to have your arm opened so the point of your elbow is on top of the spasm.  It’s a bit tricky, but if you move about a bit you’ll come on to it, and it will hurt.  Keep the pressure so it’s tolerable, not excruciating.

After you have worked on this point for a few minutes you can move to the second part of the treatment.

hip pain treatmentPut the heel of your “same-side” hand onto your thigh as close to the spasm as you can get.  Lift up your fingers so the pressure is only on the heel of your hand.  You can use your opposite hand to help give more pressure.

Press down hard and deeply slide down the muscle, going toward your knee.  You can also kneed it like you would kneed bread dough, really forcing the muscle fibers to relax.

I’m putting in a picture from a previous blog to explain how you can also treat this point of your rectus femoris by using a ball on the floor.

As shown in this picture, lie on the floor with the ball on your hip muscle, and then slightly turn your body toward the floor so the ball rolls toward the front of your body. You may need to move the ball down an inch or so to get to your Rectus Femoris.

When you feel the pain, you’re on the muscle.  Just stay there for a minute or so, and if you want you can move so the ball goes along the muscle fibers all the way to your knee.

pain free living book coverIt may be a challenge to find this point, but it’s well-worth the effort!

In my book, Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, I teach how to treat all the muscles that cause pain from your head to your feet.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

julie donnelly

About The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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