Maximizing Polyphenols Benefits

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Gut Bacteria, Polyphenols Benefits

The Symbiotic Relationship Between Gut Bacteria And Polyphenols

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

How to maximize polyphenols benefits?

grape polyphenolsPolyphenols are ubiquitous in the plant world. There are many kinds of polyphenols, and they are found in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. You probably already know that polyphenols are also found in tea, coffee, chocolate, and many herbs and spices.

Polyphenols are thought to have a wide array of health benefits. For example, the polyphenols in grapes are thought to:

  • Reduce inflammation.
  • Reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
  • Prevent or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

The amazing thing is that polyphenols are effective at all. They are poorly absorbed and rapidly eliminated from the circulation. For example, resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red grapes, only stays in the circulation for a few hours.

In the case of resveratrol, we know that, during its brief time in our bodies, it turns on “anti-aging” genes that control things like inflammation, protection against free radical damage, cholesterol metabolism, blood sugar control, and blood pressure. We are less certain how other polyphenols exert their beneficial effects during the short time they are in our bodies.

When we scientists are facing a problem like this, it stimulates our creative thinking. We start asking questions like:

  • Can we improve the absorption of beneficial polyphenols into the bloodstream?
  • Would that improve their effectiveness and health benefits?

A recent review (D Zhao et al, Critical Reviews In Food Science and Nutrition: Jan 7, 1-29, 2019) looked at the first question. It summarized the most promising strategies for improving the absorption of grape polyphenols. We don’t yet know the answer to the second question.

Before I discuss the most promising strategies, the professor in me wants to cover Polyphenols 101, something I call “The Symbiotic Relationship Between Gut Bacteria and Polyphenols”.

 

The Symbiotic Relationship Between Gut Bacteria and Polyphenols

 

polyphenols gut bacteriaThe world of polyphenols is complex. For example:

  • Resveratrol is the best-known and best-studied polyphenol in grapes, but there are dozens of other beneficial polyphenols in grapes.
  • Each of these polyphenols have unique metabolic pathways and unique health benefits.
  • Each variety of grapes has a unique blend of polyphenols.
  • Each polyphenol is metabolized differently by our gut bacteria and by enzymes in our body.
  • You start with dozens of polyphenols in the grape and end up with hundreds of metabolites in the body.
  • Some of these metabolites are better absorbed. Some are not absorbed at all. Some of these metabolites are highly active. Others are inactive. The possibilities are endless.

As if that weren’t enough, there are two more complexities to factor into the equation.

  • There is a symbiotic relationship between gut bacteria and polyphenols.
  • Our gut bacteria influence the metabolism and absorption of the polyphenols in our diet.
  • The polyphenols we consume influence the population of bacteria in our gut.
  • The kinds of fiber we consume influence which bacteria populate our gut, and that, in turn, influences how we metabolize the polyphenols we consume.

Faced with this level of complexity, there have been two types of approaches to improving the absorption of polyphenols.

  • The pharmaceutical approach, which tries to bypass the complexities of polyphenol absorption.
  • The natural approach, which tries to optimize the complexities of polyphenol absorption.

The review (D Zhao et al, Critical Reviews In Food Science and Nutrition: Jan 7, 1-29, 2019) gives examples of each type of approach, which I will discuss below.

 

Maximizing Polyphenols Benefits

 

polyphenols effectivenessPharmaceutical Approaches: These are approaches designed to bypass the complexities of polyphenol absorption. The authors considered the following two strategies to have the most probability of success:

  • Chemical alteration of polyphenol structure. This is a classical pharmaceutical strategy. You start with naturally occurring compound that has medicinal benefit. Then you chemically modify it in multiple ways until you find a chemical modification that is efficiently absorbed and is stable in the circulation. There are two drawbacks to this approach:
  • You have created a new compound with its own properties. You have created a drug that needs to be tested for safety and efficacy. Resveratrol, for example, offers a cautionary tale. A drug company modified it. The modified form was efficiently absorbed and was stable in the bloodstream. They thought they had created the perfect drug. Unfortunately, when they tested it, they found out it was toxic.
  • Even if you did optimize safety and efficacy of the polyphenol, you have only optimized one polyphenol out of the dozens found in the real food.
  • Incorporate the polyphenol into nanoparticles that are absorbed so efficiently by the intestine that they effectively bypass metabolism by gut bacteria. This is a strategy currently being explored by drug companies to improve the efficacy of poorly absorbed drugs. Even if successful, this approach has the same type of drawbacks.
  • This is a relatively new technology. There are some concerns it may not be safe.
  • Foods have dozens of polyphenols. A nanoparticle strategy may improve the absorption of one or two polyphenols, but it is unlikely to replace the real food.

maximize polyphenols benefitsNatural Approaches: These approaches are designed to optimize the complexities of polyphenol absorption.

  • Develop a probiotic supplement containing bacteria that improve polyphenol uptake. There is some promising research in this area.
  • However, when we talk about gut bacteria, the phrase “It takes a village” takes on a whole new meaning. There may be dozens of bacteria involved in improving polyphenol uptake, not just one or two. The probiotic supplement may need to be a horse pill
  • Add fiber to the diet to support the growth of the gut bacteria that enhance the absorption of polyphenols. This may be the most promising strategy.
  • Studies have already shown that pectin and similar non-digestible polysaccharides improve the absorption of polyphenols found in grapes and many other foods.
  • While grapes are low in pectin, other fruits (most notably apples, peaches, citrus fruit, apricots, and plums) are high in pectin. Legumes and some vegetables are also high in pectin. The only reason you don’t find them on most lists of high pectin foods is these lists are for foods that have enough pectin to make good jams without any added pectin. Legumes and vegetables are also high in insoluble fibers, which interfere with the gelling required for a good jam. Besides, kale or pea jam are probably not high on anyone’s list of favorite jams.
  • The best thing about this approach is that it is completely natural. It involves eating a plant-based diet with fruits, vegetables whole grains, and legumes, something humans have been doing for thousands of years. This a diet chock full of beneficial polyphenols and the fiber needed to support the gut bacteria that help us utilize those polyphenols. There are no side effects. There is no danger associated with this approach. 

Once again, Mother Nature knows best.

Addendum

While writing this article I happened to read “The People’s Pharmacy” column by Joe & Terry Graedon in our local paper (Yes, I still read a physical newspaper). They were talking about combining pectin with grape juice to relieve arthritis pain. Some of the polyphenols in grape juice have anti-inflammatory effects. But, grape juice alone is not very effective at relieving arthritis pain. However, it turns out that pectin plus grape juice, something called “purple pectin remedy,” is a home remedy for arthritis pain relief that has been around since the 1940s. They did not discuss a mechanism, but now we know how it works.

Note: I suppose if you are getting your grape polyphenols from grape juice, wine, or some other liquid source, you could stir in some pectin to improve their absorption. However, my recommendation would be to consume a primarily plant-based diet with a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes along with your liquid polyphenol source.

 

The Bottom Line

 

Resveratrol and other polyphenols found in grapes have many health benefits. However, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed. A recent review described ongoing research into approaches for improving the absorption of grape polyphenols

I discuss the various approaches that are being studied in my article above. Some are pharmaceutical approaches that involve structural alterations to the polyphenol or nanoparticle delivery systems to improve absorption. Others involve probiotics that contain bacterial strains that enhance polyphenol absorption. Each of these approaches have limitations, or dangers, or both.

The most promising approach was to simply add fiber to the diet to support the growth of the gut bacteria that enhance the absorption of polyphenols.

  • Studies have already shown that pectin and similar non-digestible polysaccharides improve the absorption of polyphenols found in grapes and many other foods.
  • While grapes are low in pectin, other fruits (most notably Apples, peaches, citrus fruit (especially the skin), apricots, and plums) are high in pectin. Legumes and some vegetables are also high in pectin. The only reason you don’t find them on most lists of high pectin foods is these lists are for foods that have enough pectin to make good jams without any added pectin. Legumes and vegetables are also high in insoluble fibers, which interfere with the gelling required for a good jam. Besides, kale or pea jam are probably not high on anyone’s list of favorite jams.
  • The best thing about this approach is that it is completely natural. It involves eating a plant-based diet with fruits, vegetables whole grains, and legumes, something humans have been doing for thousands of years. This a diet chock full of beneficial polyphenols and the fiber needed to support the gut bacteria that help us utilize those polyphenols. There are no side effects. There is no danger associated with this approach.

Once again, Mother Nature knows best.

Note: If you are getting your grape polyphenols from grape juice, wine, or some other liquid source, you could stir in some pectin to improve their absorption. However, my recommendation would be to consume a primarily plant-based diet with a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes along with your liquid polyphenol source.

For more details read the article above. You will also find an interesting story about the “purple pectin remedy”.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

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What Is The Planetary Diet?

Posted May 21, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Is Your Diet Destroying The Planet?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Earth Day has come and gone, but you are still committed to saving the planet. You save energy. You recycle. You drive an electric car. But is your diet destroying the planet?

This is not a new question, but a recent commission of international scientists has conducted a comprehensive study into our diet and its effect on our health and our environment. Their report (W. Willet et al, The Lancet, 393, issue 10170, 447-492, 2019 ) serves as a dire warning of what will happen if we don’t change our ways. I touched on this report briefly in a previous issue of “Health Tips From The Professor,” What Is The Flexitarian Diet , but this topic is important enough that it deserves an issue all its own.

The commission carefully evaluated diet and food production methods and asked three questions:

  • Are they good for us?
  • Are they good for the planet?
  • Are they sustainable? Will they be able to meet the needs of the projected population of 10 billion people in 2050 without degrading our environment.

The commission described the typical American diet as a “lose-lose diet.” It is bad for our health. It is bad for the planet. And it is not sustainable.

In its place they carefully designed their version of a primarily plant-based diet they called a “win-win diet.”  It is good for our health. It is good for the planet. And, it is sustainable.

In their publication they refer to their diet as the “universal healthy reference diet” (What else would you expect from a committee?). However, it has become popularly known as the “Planetary Diet.”

I have spoken before about the importance of a primarily plant-based diet for our health. In that context it is a personal choice. It is optional.

However, this report is a wake-up call. It puts a primarily plant-based diet in an entirely different context. It is essential for the survival of our planet. It is no longer optional.

If you care about global warming…If you care about saving our planet, there is no other choice.

How Was The Study Done?

The study (W. Willet et al, The Lancet, 393, issue 10170, 447-492, 2019 ) was the report of the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems. This Commission convened 30 of the top experts from across the globe to prepare a science-based evaluation of the effect of diet on both health and sustainable food production through the year 2050. The Commission included world class experts on healthy diets, agricultural methods, climate change, and earth sciences. The Commission reviewed 356 published studies in preparing their report.

 

Is Your Diet Destroying The Planet?

When they looked at the effect of food production on the environment, the Commission concluded:

  • “Strong evidence indicates that food production is among the largest drivers of global environmental change.” Specifically, the commission reported:
  • Agriculture occupies 40% of global land (58% of that is for pasture use).
  • Food production is responsible for 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions and 70% of freshwater use.
  • Conversion of natural ecosystems to croplands and pastures is the largest factor causing species to be threatened with extinction. Specifically, 80% of extinction threats to mammals and bird species are due to agricultural practices.
  • Overuse and misuse of nitrogen and phosphorous in fertilizers causes eutrophication. In case you are wondering, eutrophication is defined as the process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients (such as phosphates from commercial fertilizer) that stimulate the growth of algae and other aquatic plant life, usually resulting in the depletion of dissolved oxygen. This creates dead zones in lakes and coastal regions where fish and other marine organisms cannot survive.
  • About 60% of world fish stocks are fully fished and more than 30% are overfished. Because of this, catch by global marine fisheries has been declining since 1996.
  • “Reaching the Paris Agreement of limiting global warming…is not possible by only decarbonizing the global energy systems. Transformation to healthy diets from sustainable food systems is essential to achieving the Paris Agreement.”
  • The world’s population is expected to increase to 10 billion by 2050. The current system of food production is unsustainable.

When they looked at the effect of the foods we eat on the environment, the Commission concluded:

  • Beef and lamb are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and land use.
  • The concern about land use is obvious because of the large amount of pasture land required to raise cattle and sheep.
  • The concern about greenhouse gas emissions is because cattle and sheep are ruminants. They not only breathe out CO2, but they also release methane into the atmosphere from fermentation in their rumens of the food they eat. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and it persists in the atmosphere 25 times longer than CO2. The single most important thing we can do as individuals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to eat less beef and lamb. [Note: grass fed cattle produce more greenhouse gas emissions than cattle raised on corn because they require 3 years to bring to market rather than 2 years.]
  • In terms of energy use beef, lamb, pork, chicken, dairy and eggs all require much more energy to produce than any of the plant foods.
  • In terms of eutrophication, beef, lamb, and pork, all cause much more eutrophication than any plant food. Dairy and eggs cause more eutrophication than any plant food except fruits.
  • In contrast, plant crops reduce greenhouse gas emissions by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.

 

What Is The Planetary Diet?

In the words of the Commission: “[The Planetary Diet] largely consists of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and unsaturated oils. It includes a low to moderate amount of seafood, poultry, and eggs. It includes no or a very low amount of red meat, processed meat, sugar, refined grains, and starchy vegetables.”

When described in that fashion it sounds very much like other healthy diets such as semi-vegetarian, Mediterranean, DASH, and Flexitarian. However, what truly distinguishes it from the other diets is the restrictions placed on the non-plant portion of the diet to make it both environmentally friendly and sustainable. Here is a more detailed description of the diet:

  • It starts with a vegetarian diet. Vegetables, fruits, beans, nuts, soy foods, and whole grains are the foundation of the diet.
  • It allows the option of adding one serving of dairy a day (It turns out that cows produce much less greenhouse emissions per serving of dairy than per serving of beef. That’s because cows take several years to mature before they can be converted to meat, and they are emitting greenhouse gases the entire time).
  • It allows the option of adding one 3 oz serving of fish or poultry or one egg per day.
  • It allows the option of swapping seafood, poultry, or egg for a 3 oz serving of red meat no more than once a week. If you want a 12 oz steak, that would be no more than once a month.

This is obviously very different from the way most Americans currently eat. According to the Commission:

  • “This would require greater than 50% reduction in consumption of unhealthy foods, such as red meat and sugar, and greater than 100% increase in the consumption of healthy foods, such as nuts, fruits, vegetables, and legumes.”
  • “In addition to the benefits for the environment, “dietary changes from current diets to healthy diets are likely to substantially benefit human health, averting about 10.8-11.6 million deaths per year globally.”

What Else Did The Commission Recommend?

In addition to changes in our diets, the Commission also recommended several changes in the way food is produced. Here are a few of them.

  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel used to transport food to market.
  • Reduce food losses and waste by at least 50%.
  • Make radical improvements in the efficiency of fertilizer and water use. In terms of fertilizer, the change would be two-fold:
    • In developed countries, reduce fertilizer use and put in place systems to capture runoff and recycle the phosphorous.
    • In third world countries, make fertilizer more available so that crop yields can be increased, something the Commission refer to as eliminating the “yield gap” between third world and developed countries.
  • Stop the expansion of new agricultural land use into natural ecosystems and put in place policies aimed at restoring and re-foresting degraded land.
  • Manage the world’s oceans effectively to ensure that fish stocks are used responsibly and global aquaculture (fish farm) production is expanded sustainability.

What we can do: While most of these are government level policies, we can contribute to the first three by reducing personal food waste and purchasing organic produce locally whenever possible.

What Does This Mean For You?

If you are a vegan, you are probably asking why the Commission did not recommend a completely plant-based diet. The answer is that a vegan diet is perfect for the health of our planet. However, the Commission wanted to make a diet that was as consumer-friendly as possible and still meet their goals of a healthy, environmentally friendly, and sustainable diet.

If you are eating a typical American diet or one of the fad diets that encourage meat consumption, you are probably wondering how you can ever make such drastic changes to your diet. The answer is “one step at a time.”  If you have read my books “Slaying The Food Myths” or “Slaying the Supplement Myths,”  you know that my wife and I did not change our diet overnight. Our diet evolved to something very close to the Planetary Diet over a period of years.

The Commission also purposely designed the Planetary Diet so that you “never have to say never” to your favorite foods. Three ounces of red meat a week does not sound like much, but it allows you a juicy steak once a month.

Sometimes you just need to develop a new mindset. As I shared in my books, my father prided himself on grilling the perfect steak. I love steaks, but I decided to set a few parameters. I don’t waste my red meat calories on anything besides filet mignon at a fine restaurant. It must be a special occasion, and someone else must be buying. That limits it to 2-3 times a year. I still get to enjoy good steak, and I stay well within the parameters of the Planetary diet.

Develop your strategy for enjoying some of your favorite foods within the parameters of the Planetary Diet and have fun with it.

The Bottom Line

 

Is your diet destroying the planet? This is not a new question, but a recent commission of international scientists has conducted a comprehensive study into our diet and its effect on our health and our environment. Their report serves as a dire warning of what will happen to us and our planet if we don’t change our ways.

The Commission carefully evaluated diet and food production methods and asked three questions:

  • Are they good for us?
  • Are they good for the planet?
  • Are they sustainable? Will they be able to meet the needs of the projected population of 10 billion people in 2050 without degrading our environment.

The Commission described the typical American diet as a “lose-lose diet.”  It is bad for our health. It is bad for the planet. And it is not sustainable.

In its place they carefully designed their version of a primarily plant-based diet they called a “win-win diet.”  It is good for our health. It is good for the planet. And, it is sustainable.

In their publication they refer to their diet as the “universal healthy reference diet” (What else would you expect from a committee?). However, it has become popularly known as the “Planetary Diet.”

The Planetary Diet is similar to other healthy diets such as semi-vegetarian, Mediterranean, DASH, and Flexitarian. However, what truly distinguishes it from the other diets is the restrictions placed on the non-plant portion of the diet to make it both environmentally friendly and sustainable (for details, read the article above).

I have spoken before about the importance of a primarily plant-based diet for our health. In that context it is a personal choice. It is optional.

However, this report is a wake-up call. It puts a primarily plant-based diet in an entirely different context. It is essential for the survival of our planet. It is no longer optional.

If you care about global warming…If you care about saving our planet, there is no other choice.

For more details read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

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