Do Multivitamins Reduce the Risk of Miscarriage?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Multivitamins and Miscarriage, Vitamins and Health, Weight Loss

Will A Multivitamin A Day Keep YourBaby Healthy?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

multivitamins reduce risk of miscarriageThe standard medical advice for years has been to take a prenatal supplement (basically a multivitamin with extra folic acid, iron and sometimes calcium) both before and during pregnancy. Does that really make a difference? Will it reduce the risk of miscarriage? Will it give you a healthier baby?  A recent study suggests that multivitamin use may significantly decrease your risk of miscarrying, but before going into the study you need a little background.

 

It’s a new world. It used to be that a woman didn’t know for sure that she was pregnant until she had missed one or two periods and finally got an appointment with her doctor – a month or two after conception actually occurred. In today’s world accuracy in home pregnancy tests allow women to learn they are pregnant much earlier – often before the first missed period.

With the early detection of pregnancy has come the realization that miscarriage rates are much higher than previously assumed. In spite of improved prenatal care, the rate of miscarriages in the US increased by 1% per year between 1985 and 2005. In part that is because women using the in-home pregnancy tests are detecting their pregnancies much early. However, it also reflects the fact that early miscarriages are often asymptomatic. They can only be detected by negative pregnancy tests.

With that in mind, let’s look at the study.

Do Multivitamins Reduce the Risk of Miscarriage?

pregnancy and miscarriageThis study (Louis et al, Fertility and Sterility, doi.org.10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.03.009, 2016), had a very interesting design. It enrolled 501 couples ages 18-40 from Michigan and Texas who were actively trying to become pregnant into something called the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study. The women in the study were instructed in the use of a commercial fertility urine test to help the couples plan their intercourse to maximize the chances of conceiving. They were also instructed in the use of a commercial pregnancy urine test to determine the onset and potential loss of pregnancy (miscarriage).

The couples were given no guidance on health practices to follow before and during pregnancy. They were interviewed individually upon enrolment to obtain sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical history information. They were asked to keep a daily journal recording things like cigarettes use, consumption of alcoholic or caffeinated beverages, and multivitamin use (The journal did not distinguish between over-the-counter multivitamins and prescribed prenatal vitamins).

Of the couples who enrolled in the study, 347 (69%) of them became pregnant. Three of the women conceived twins and were eliminated from the study. Of the remaining 344 women, 98 (28%) of them experienced a miscarriage during the first 22 weeks. No miscarriages were observed after 22 weeks.

When they looked at risk factors that affected pregnancy loss (miscarriages):

  • The miscarriage rate was almost double for women over 35, which is consistent with previous studies.
  • Consumption of two or more caffeinated beverages/day by either partner prior to conception and during early pregnancy significantly increased the risk of miscarriage
  • Daily multivitamin use by the woman prior to conception reduced the risk of miscarriage by 55%. If the vitamin use was continued through the first 7 weeks of pregnancy, the risk of miscarriage was reduced by 79%.
  • No effect of obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use on miscarriage risk was seen in this study, which is different from most previous studies.

Putting This Study Into Perspective

This was a fairly well designed study, but it is a single study.  Let’s put each of the main findings in the context of previous studies.

Multivitamin Use: Earlier studies have shown that supplements containing extra folic acid probably reduce miscarriages. However, now that foods are routinely fortified with folic acid in the US, the benefit of multivitamins and prenatal supplements has become more controversial. Some studies have shown, like this one, that multivitamins reduce miscarriage risk. Others did not. However, multivitamin use before and during pregnancy has relatively few risks, so it is still probably a good idea.

Caffeinated Beverages: There have been relatively few studies to date on the effect of caffeinated beverages on miscarriage risk, but the few that have been performed tend to agree that caffeinated beverages may increase the risk of miscarriage. While the data are far from definitive at this point, it is probably a good idea to limit your caffeinated beverages before and during pregnancy.

Age: Age is a well-established risk factor for miscarriages. While many consider 40 as the threshold for increased risk, this study and several other recent studies suggest it may be closer to 35. That doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t try to have a baby if you are over 35, but it does mean that you will probably want to avoid any lifestyle factors that might increase your risk of miscarriage.

Other Factors:This study did not find an effect of obesity, smoking or alcohol on pregnancy risk. However, many other studies have shown that each of these increases the risk of miscarriage. It’s probably a good idea to drop a few extra pounds and avoid both smoking and alcohol if you wish to maximize your chances of a successful pregnancy outcome.

If You Are Pregnant, What Does This Study Mean For You? 

preventing miscarriageThis study supports multivitamin use before and during pregnancy and suggests that excessive consumption of caffeinated beverages may have a negative effect on pregnancy outcome. However, it doesn’t significantly alter the standard medical advice for what you should do before and during pregnancy.

  • Daily multivitamin use, both prior to and during pregnancy, is probably a good idea. Not all studies agree, but some studies suggest that it will significantly decrease the risk of miscarriage.
  • Obesity and diabetes increase miscarriage risk. The good news is that even a 5-10% weight loss often is sufficient to reverse diabetes and may improve pregnancy outcome as well.
  • If you are over 35, your risk of suffering a miscarriage is significantly increased.
  • Smoking and alcohol use should be avoided. Both are likely to increase your risk of miscarriage.
  • Recent studies suggest that the consumption of two or more caffeinated beverages a day may also increase your risk of miscarriage, so don’t overindulge in caffeinated beverages. Be aware that it’s not just coffee and tea that are caffeinated. Many sodas are caffeinated as well.

 

The Bottom Line

 A recent study showed:

 

  • Daily multivitamin use by the woman prior to conception reduced the risk of miscarriage by 55%. If the vitamin use was continued through the first 7 weeks of pregnancy, the risk of miscarriage was reduced by 79%.
  • Consumption of two or more caffeinated beverages/day by either partner prior to conception and during early pregnancy significantly increased the risk of miscarriage
  • The miscarriage rate was almost double for women over 35, which is consistent with previous studies.
  • No effect of obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use on miscarriage risk was seen in this study, which is different from most previous studies.
  • This study reinforces the recommendation for multivitamin or prenatal vitamin use, but the standard medical advice for a successful pregnancy isn’t really changed:
  • Daily multivitamin use, both prior to and during pregnancy, is probably a good idea. Not all studies agree, but some studies suggest that it will significantly decrease the risk of miscarriage.
  • Obesity and diabetes increase miscarriage risk. The good news is that even a 5-10% weight loss often is sufficient to reverse diabetes and may improve pregnancy outcome as well.
  • If you are over 35, your risk of suffering a miscarriage is significantly increased. That doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t try to have a baby if you are over 35, but it does mean that you will probably want to avoid any lifestyle factors that might increase your risk of miscarriage.
  • Smoking and alcohol use should be avoided. Both are likely to increase your risk of miscarriage.
  • Recent studies suggest that the consumption of two or more caffeinated beverages a day may also increase your risk of miscarriage, so don’t overindulge in caffeinated beverages. Be aware that it’s not just coffee and tea that are caffeinated. Many sodas are caffeinated as well.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Latest Article

Relieve Hip Pain After Sitting or Driving

Posted June 20, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Relief is Just a Few Movements Away!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

relieve hip pain after sittingI’m on a long business trip, speaking and teaching in Tennessee and New York, and the drive from Sarasota, FL meant many hours of driving over several days.  One of my stops was to visit with Suzanne and Dr. Steve Chaney at their home in North Carolina.  It was that long drive that became the inspiration for this blog.

After all those hours of driving, my hip was really sore. It was painful to stand up. While talking to Suzanne and Dr. Chaney I was using my elbow to work on the sore area, and when we were discussing the blog for this month it only made sense to share this technique with you.  So, Dr. Chaney took pictures and I sat at his computer to write.  I thought others may want to how to relieve hip pain after sitting or driving for long periods.

What Causes Anterior Hip Pain?

As I’ve mentioned in posts in the past, sitting is the #1 cause of low back pain, and it also causes anterior hip pain (pain localized towards the front of the hip) because the muscles (psoas and iliacus) pass through the hip and insert into the tendons that then insert into the top of the thigh bone.  When hip pain reliefyou try to stand up, the tight muscle tendons will pull on your thigh bone.  The other thing that happens is the point where the muscle merges into the tendon will be very tight and tender to touch. You aren’t having pain at your hip or thigh bone, but at the muscular point where the muscle and tendon merge.

It’s a bit confusing to describe, but you’ll find it if you sit down and put your fingers onto the tip of your pelvis, then just slide your fingers down toward your thigh and out about 2”. The point is right along the crease where your leg meets your trunk.

The muscle you are treating is the Rectus Femoris, where it merges from the tendon into the muscle fibers.  Follow this link, thigh muscle, to see the muscle and it will be a bit easier to visualize.

You need to be pressing deeply into the muscle, like you’re trying to press the bone and the muscle just happens to be in the way.  Move your fingers around a bit and you’ll find it.

Easy Treatment for Anterior Hip Pain After Sitting

relieve hip painHere is an easy treatment for hip pain after sitting you can administer yourself.  First, sit as I am, with your leg out and slightly turned.

Find the tender point with your fingers and then put your elbow into it as shown.

It’s important to have your arm opened so the point of your elbow is on top of the spasm.  It’s a bit tricky, but if you move about a bit you’ll come on to it, and it will hurt.  Keep the pressure so it’s tolerable, not excruciating.

After you have worked on this point for a few minutes you can move to the second part of the treatment.

hip pain treatmentPut the heel of your “same-side” hand onto your thigh as close to the spasm as you can get.  Lift up your fingers so the pressure is only on the heel of your hand.  You can use your opposite hand to help give more pressure.

Press down hard and deeply slide down the muscle, going toward your knee.  You can also kneed it like you would kneed bread dough, really forcing the muscle fibers to relax.

I’m putting in a picture from a previous blog to explain how you can also treat this point of your rectus femoris by using a ball on the floor.

As shown in this picture, lie on the floor with the ball on your hip muscle, and then slightly turn your body toward the floor so the ball rolls toward the front of your body. You may need to move the ball down an inch or so to get to your Rectus Femoris.

When you feel the pain, you’re on the muscle.  Just stay there for a minute or so, and if you want you can move so the ball goes along the muscle fibers all the way to your knee.

pain free living book coverIt may be a challenge to find this point, but it’s well-worth the effort!

In my book, Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, I teach how to treat all the muscles that cause pain from your head to your feet.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

julie donnelly

About The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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