Do Omega-3s Slow Cognitive Decline?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Healthy Lifestyle, Vitamins and Health

Why Omega-3s Should Be Part Of Your Holistic Brain Health Program

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Omega3-Cognitive-DeclineWho wouldn’t want to avoid dementia and Alzheimer’s in our later years? There is a ton of advice on the internet about “magic” solutions to keep our brains sharp well into our 90s. Unfortunately, most of that advice is contradicted by other claims on the internet that those solutions don’t work. What should a person do if they want to keep their brain healthy?

Two weeks ago I talked about a study showing that a holistic approach, which to me includes healthy diet, weight control, exercise, supplementation, socialization and memory training, significantly reduces cognitive decline in the elderly (Is There Hope For Alzheimer’s?).

Last week I sorted out the conflicting advice about B vitamins and cognitive decline (Do B Vitamins Slow Cognitive Decline?). More importantly, I told you who would benefit from B vitamin supplementation and who would not.

In part three of this series I’m going to help you sort out the conflicting information on omega-3s and cognitive decline. Then I will sum up what a holistic brain health program might look like for you.

Why Might Omega-3s Slow Cognitive Decline?

There are lots of reasons to believe that omega-3 fatty acids are important for brain health and might, therefore, slow cognitive decline. For example:

Omega-3 fatty acids improve blood flow to the brain.

The omega-3 fatty acid DHA is an important part of the myelin sheath, the protective coating for every neuron in our body.

DHA is also converted to a neuroprotective agent that protects the brain from oxidative stress.

The Confusing Evidence About Omega-3s And Cognitive Decline

The data about omega-3s and cognitive function to date have been confusing. Most observational studies have reported better cognitive functioning and lower incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in populations that consume large amounts of fatty fish rich in omega-3s. There is also some evidence that omega-3 supplementation improves cognitive function for patients with mild cognitive impairment or very mild Alzheimer’s disease. However, most short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled studies have found no effect of omega-3 supplementation on cognitive functioning for patients who already have mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

It had been assumed for years that by the time one already had Alzheimer’s it was too late for omega-3s to exert a protective effect. However, some recent studies have suggested a possible genetic explanation for the conflicting information on omega-3s and cognitive decline.

There is a genetic variant of the ApoE gene called ApoE4 that dramatically increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Around 20-25% of the general population and 40-50% of Alzheimer’s patients have this genotype. Several recent studies have suggested that omega-3s may protect against cognitive decline only in people who do not carry the ApoE4 genotype. The current study (Daiello et al, Alzheimer’s & Dementia, doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.02.005) was designed to test this hypothesis.

Do Omega-3s Slow Cognitive Decline?

This was a very well designed study. The investigators enrolled 819 older adults (average age 75, range 55-90) in the study and followed them for 3 to 4 years. 229 of the participants had normal cognition at enrollment, 337 had mild cognitive impairment and 193 had Alzheimer’s disease. All participants were tested for ApoE genotype.

The study participants were tested at baseline and every 6 months with two tests of cognitive function – the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the fish-oil-benefitsMini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MRI tests were also done at baseline and every 6 months to assess brain volume.

The participants were asked about fish oil supplement use at each of those times. Only those who reported taking fish oil supplements at every examination were considered fish oil supplement users (117), and only those who never consumed fish oil supplements were considered non-users (682).

The results were pretty interesting:

  • Fish oil supplements significantly decreased cognitive decline and brain shrinkage in the ApoE4 negative population, but not in the ApoE4 positive population.
  • The beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation were only seen in the population with normal cognition at the time the study started. Those benefits were not significant in the populations with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Unfortunately, the study was not large enough to perform a statistic analysis of the ApoE positive and negative subpopulations of the groups with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease, so it was not possible to tell whether omega-3s might have been beneficial in people with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease who are ApoE4 negative.

The authors concluded that their results “highlight the need for future research on the effects of long-term fish oil supplement use on cognitive aging and dementia prevention in middle-aged and older adults”.

They also highlighted a major reason why so many previous studies have failed to find a link between omega-3s and cognitive decline when they said “Studies on cognitive aging that don’t screen subjects for ApoE4 are doomed to failure”.

Putting It All Together: Holistic Approaches For Preserving Brain Health

When I began this series three weeks ago with Is There Hope For Alzheimer’s? , I talked about the importance of holistic approaches. I referred back to a cancer expert who said that he could prove that a holistic lifestyle approach significantly reduced the risk of colon cancer, but he couldn’t prove that any individual lifestyle change had any effect on colon cancer risk.

holistic-health-programThe situation is very similar when we talk about preserving cognitive function. Over the past three weeks I have identified many things that can reduce the risk of cognitive decline – healthy diets, exercise, socialization, mental exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, B vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids. If we follow a holistic lifestyle that combines all of these things, we are likely to dramatically increase our probability of maintaining a healthy brain well into our golden years.

However, holistic lifestyle changes are difficult. I know some of you will want to take a simpler approach. You are going to ask:

1)  Are there some individual lifestyle changes that are certain to slow cognitive decline on their own?

The answer is probably not. Maintaining a healthy weight comes close. However, some evidence suggests that it is not obesity itself that increases the risk of dementia. It is the insulin resistance and elevated blood sugar associated with obesity – and not everyone with obesity has insulin resistance and elevated blood sugar levels. So for some people obesity may not increase their risk of dementia. For those people weight loss might not reduce their risk of dementia.

2)  Are there some lifestyle changes I don’t need to make if my diet is OK?

The study I described in last week’s Health Tips From the Professor  found that B vitamin supplementation only reduced the risk of cognitive decline for people who were B vitamin deficient.

So one might assume that you could get a simple test for B vitamin deficiency and determine whether B vitamin supplementation would be beneficial or not. But which test should you get? Who is at risk? Is it the 5-10% of the population with elevated homocysteine levels, the 10% of the population with a deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the 25% of the population with low blood levels of B6 or the 40% of the population over 60 with B12 deficiency? We simply don’t know.

3)  Is it even worth bothering making lifestyle changes if I’m genetically predisposed to developing Alzheimer’s?

This week’s study found that omega-3s reduced the risk of cognitive decline only in people who did not have the ApoE4 genotype. Does that mean that you should rush out and test yourself for ApoE4?

Here the answer is a clear no. In the first place, we have no idea how the ApoE4 genotype affects the other lifestyle changes that slow cognitive decline.

In addition, there is another, very important reason why most experts, including the professor, decline being tested for ApoE4. The ApoE4 genotype dramatically increases your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, and there is no proven treatment for reducing that risk if you are ApoE4 positive. Who wants to know that they are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s if there is nothing they can do about it?

 

The Bottom Line

1)     This study suggests that supplementation with omega-3s (fish oil) significantly reduces cognitive decline and brain shrinkage in older adults (average age 75).

2)     The effect of fish oil supplementation on cognitive decline and brain shrinkage was only seen in people who lacked the ApoE4 genotype. Fish oil supplementation was ineffective in people who were ApoE4 positive.

3)     The study showed that fish oil supplementation was effective at reducing cognitive decline and brain shrinkage in older adults with normal brain function who were ApoE4 negative, but the study was not large enough to determine whether it was also effective in older adults with cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s disease who were ApoE4 negative. Further research is needed to clarify this important point.

4)     This was a relatively well designed study, but it was a small study. Larger, long-term studies are needed to confirm these results. More importantly, based on the results of this study, future studies will need to screen participants for ApoE4 status to assure that there is a large group of ApoE4 negative participants. This would provide enough statistical power to clearly determine whether fish oil supplementation can also benefit people who already have symptoms of cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s and are ApoE4 negative.

5)     Even though ApoE4 status influences the effectiveness of fish oil supplementation on slowing cognitive decline, you probably don’t want to rush out and get yourself tested for ApoE4. We don’t know whether ApoE4 status influences other lifestyle changes that slow cognitive decline. More importantly, the ApoE4 genotype dramatically increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, and there is currently no proven treatment for reducing that risk if you are ApoE4. Who wants to know that they are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s if there is nothing you they do about it?

6)     Finally, don’t rely solely on supplementation with B vitamins or omega-3s to reduce your risk of cognitive decline. Your chances of reducing cognitive decline are best with a holistic approach that includes healthy diet, exercise, socialization, mental exercises, maintaining a healthy weight, B vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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One of the Little known Causes of Headaches

Posted August 15, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Your Sleeping Position May Be Causing Your Headaches!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Can sleeping position be one of the causes of headaches?  

A Sleeping position that has your head tilted puts pressure on your spinal cord and will cause headaches. I’ve seen it happen hundreds of times, and the reasoning is so logical it’s easy to understand.

causes of headachesYour spinal cord runs from your brain, through each of your vertebrae, down your arms and legs. Nerves pass out of the vertebrae and go to every cell in your body, including each of your organs. When you are sleeping it is important to keep your head, neck, and spine in a horizontal plane so you aren’t straining the muscles that insert into your vertebrae.

The graphic above is a close-up of your skull and the cervical (neck) vertebrae. Your nerves are shown in yellow, and your artery is shown in red.  Consider what happens if you hold your head to one side for hours. You can notice that the nerves and artery will likely be press upon. Also, since your spinal cord comes down the inside of the vertebrae, it will also be impinged.

In 2004 the Archives of Internal Medicine published an article stating that 1 out of 13 people have morning headaches. It’s interesting to note that the article never mentions the spinal cord being impinged by the vertebrae. That’s a major oversight!

Muscles merge into tendons, and the tendons insert into the bone.  As you stayed in the tilted position for hours, the muscles actually shortened to the new length.  Then you try to turn over, but the short muscles are holding your cervical vertebrae tightly, and they can’t lengthen.

The weight of your head pulls on the vertebrae, putting even more pressure on your spinal cord and nerves.  Plus, the tight muscles are pulling on the bones, causing pain on the bone.

Your Pillow is Involved in Your Sleeping Position and the Causes of  Headaches

sleep left side

The analogy I always use is; just as pulling your hair hurts your scalp, the muscle pulling on the tendons hurts the bone where it inserts.  In this case it is your neck muscles putting a strain on your cervical bones.  For example, if you sleep on your left side and your pillow is too thick, your head will be tilted up toward the ceiling. This position tightens the muscles on the right side of your neck.

sleeping in car and desk

Dozing off while sitting in a car waiting for someone to arrive, or while working for hours at your desk can also horizontal line sleepcause headaches. The pictures above show a strain on the neck when you fall asleep without any support on your neck. Both of these people will wake up with a headache, and with stiffness in their neck.

The best sleeping position to prevent headaches is to have your pillow adjusted so your head, neck, and spine are in a horizontal line. Play with your pillows, putting two thin pillows into one case if necessary. If your pillow is too thick try to open up a corner and pull out some of the stuffing.

 

sleeping on stomachSleeping on Your Back & Stomach

If you sleep on your back and have your head on the mattress, your spine is straight. All you need is a little neck pillow for support, and a pillow under your knees.

Stomach sleeping is the worst sleeping position for not only headaches, but so many other aches and pains. It’s a tough habit to break, but it can be done. This sleeping position deserves its own blog, which I will do in the future.

 

Treating the Muscles That Cause Headaches

sleeping position causes of headachesAll of the muscles that originate or insert into your cervical vertebrae, and many that insert into your shoulder and upper back, need to be treated.  The treatments are all taught in Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, in the neck and shoulder chapters.  Here is one treatment that will help you get relief.

Take either a tennis ball or the Perfect Ball (which really is Perfect because it has a solid center and soft outside) and press into your shoulder as shown.  You are treating a muscle called Levator Scapulae which pulls your cervical vertebrae out of alignment when it is tight.

Hold the press for about 30 seconds, release, and then press again.

Your pillow is a key to neck pain and headaches caused by your sleeping position.  It’s worth the time and energy to investigate how you sleep and correct your pillow.  I believe this blog will help you find the solution and will insure you have restful sleep each night.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

 

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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