Prenatal DHA Supplement

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in DHA and Pregnancy, Prenatal DHA Supplement

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

Is taking a prenatal DHA supplement wise for brain health?

There are lots of reasons to think that DHA supplementation may be important for healthy brain development.

  • DHA is a major component of the myelin sheath that coats every neuron in the brain.
  • Just as the plastic coating on copper wire allows it to conduct an electrical current, the myelin sheath allows neurons to conduct nerve impulses from one end of the neuron to the other. In short, the myelin sheath is absolutely essential for brain function.
  • Unlike many of the other components of the myelin sheath, the body cannot make DHA. It must be provided by the diet.
  • Recent studies have suggested that most women in the United States and Canada do not get sufficient amounts of the omega-3s EPA and DHA in their diet.
  • Animal studies show that DHA deficiency during pregnancy interferes with normal brain and eye development.

With all that circumstantial evidence, it would seem obvious that a prenatal DHA supplement would be important for healthy brain development in infants and children.  However, clinical studies have been all over the map.

Some studies have reported that DHA supplementation during pregnancy improves cognition, attention span, behavior or reading skills in both infants and children.  Other studies have shown no effect of DHA supplementation on those parameters.  There is no consensus on this very important question.

Thus, when I saw a recent study titled “Prenatal Supplementation with DHA Improves Attention At 5 Years Of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial” (U Ramakrishnan et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101071, 2016), I decided to Investigate.

 

Does Taking a Prenatal DHA Supplement Improve Attention Span?

healthy brains for kidsIn this study 1094 Mexican women were randomly assigned to receive either 400 mg of DHA or a placebo containing corn and soy oil starting in the second trimester of pregnancy (a time at which myelination and brain development begins) until delivery. Of the women enrolled in the study, 973 of them gave birth to healthy babies.

The investigators were able to follow up with 797 (82%) of those children at age 5 and conducted tests to measure overall cognitive function, behavior, and attention span.

  • There were no differences in overall cognitive development or behavior between the two groups.
  • The children from mothers who supplemented with DHA performed significantly better in tests of attention span. They were much less likely to be distracted by external stimuli than the children from mothers not supplementing with DHA.
  • In short, this study suggested that supplementation with DHA during pregnancy produced children who were less likely to suffer from attention deficit disorders at age 5.

This study had a number of strengths:

  • It was a fairly large study (797 children).
  • Supplementation was with pure DHA rather than with a mixture of EPA, DHA, and other omega-3 fatty acids.
  • The population was from an urban area of Mexico where omega-3 intake is generally low, so it was likely that many of the women were DHA-deficient at the beginning of the study.

However, it also had some glaring weaknesses:

  • The DHA status of the women was not measured either at baseline or after supplementation.
  • The quality of the child’s learning environment was not measured.

In short, the study was neither better or worse than the many other published studies.

 

Why Is There So Much Confusion?

To try and clear up the confusion I have also analyzed many of the other published studies in this field. There were things not to like about every study, but there was no obvious reason why some studies showed a positive effect of DHA supplementation and others failed to see any benefit. This is not unusual for human nutrition clinical studies, but it is frustrating.

However, when you look at the totality of the studies in this field there is one obvious reason why there is so much confusion. There is no uniformity in experimental design. No two studies are alike.

The published studies differ in:

  • The composition of omega-3s. Some studies are done with pure DHA. Others with mixtures of EPA and DHA and with varying ratios of EPA to DHA.
  • The amount of DHA. Studies range from 100 mg/day to 800 mg/day.
  • When the DHA is given. Some studies give the DHA to the pregnant mothers. Others give DHA to infants or to children of various ages.

Even worse, most of the published studies to date have not measured omega-3 status prior to supplementation, nor have they documented an improvement in omega-3 status with supplementation. Obviously, DHA supplementation is most likely to be beneficial for individuals who were DHA-deficient at the beginning of the study.

Until there is some uniformity in experimental design and DHA status is routinely measured, it is likely that the confusion will continue and this important question will remain unanswered.

 

  Should Pregnant Women Take a Prenatal DHA Supplement?

prenatal dha supplementIf we were to assume that most American women were getting enough omega-3s in their diet, and the consequences of DHA deficiency were relatively minor, this would be merely an academic discussion. We could afford to wait years until scientists were able to come to a consensus.

However, neither of those assumptions are true:

  • One recent study reported that the United States and Canada rated last in the world with respect to omega-3 intake.
  • If any of the reported consequences (short attention span, cognitive deficits, and behavioral problems) of DHA-deficiency during pregnancy and childhood are true and they are preventable with DHA supplementation, this information is of vital importance to every woman during her child bearing years.

In short, inadequate DHA intake is so widespread and the possible consequences of DHA deficiency during pregnancy are so important that, in my opinion, a prenatal DHA supplement only makes sense. Pregnant women can’t afford to wait until we are absolutely sure that DHA supplementation is essential.

The only caveat to this recommendation is to make sure that the DHA you are getting is pure. Our oceans are increasingly polluted. Many fish and some fish oil supplements are contaminated with heavy metals and/or PCBs. Only use omega-3 and/or DHA supplements from manufacturers that use very stringent quality controls to assure their products are pure.

 

The Bottom Line

 

  • A recent study has reported that DHA supplementation during pregnancy improves attention span in children at age 5.
  • Unfortunately, there is no consensus in this field. Some studies have come to similar conclusions while others have seen no effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy.
  • If we were to assume that omega-3 deficiency was rare in this country and the consequences of DHA deficiency during pregnancy were inconsequential, this would be an academic discussion. Pregnant women could wait for scientists to reach consensus before deciding whether or not to supplement with DHA. However, neither of those studies are true.
  • Studies show that most women in the US and Canada do not get adequate omega-3s during pregnancy.
  • If any of the reported consequences of DHA deficiency during pregnancy are true and they are preventable with DHA supplementation, this information is of vital importance to every woman during her pregnancy.
  • In short, inadequate DHA intake is so widespread and the possible consequences of DHA deficiency during pregnancy are so important that, in my opinion, DHA supplementation during pregnancy only makes sense. Pregnant women can’t afford to wait until we are absolutely sure that DHA supplementation is essential.
  • The only caveat to this recommendation is to make sure that the DHA you are getting is pure. Our oceans are increasingly polluted. Many fish and some fish oil supplements are contaminated with heavy metals and/or PCBs. Only use omega-3 and/or DHA supplements from manufacturers that use very stringent quality controls to assure their products are pure.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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One of the Little known Causes of Headaches

Posted August 15, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Your Sleeping Position May Be Causing Your Headaches!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Can sleeping position be one of the causes of headaches?  

A Sleeping position that has your head tilted puts pressure on your spinal cord and will cause headaches. I’ve seen it happen hundreds of times, and the reasoning is so logical it’s easy to understand.

causes of headachesYour spinal cord runs from your brain, through each of your vertebrae, down your arms and legs. Nerves pass out of the vertebrae and go to every cell in your body, including each of your organs. When you are sleeping it is important to keep your head, neck, and spine in a horizontal plane so you aren’t straining the muscles that insert into your vertebrae.

The graphic above is a close-up of your skull and the cervical (neck) vertebrae. Your nerves are shown in yellow, and your artery is shown in red.  Consider what happens if you hold your head to one side for hours. You can notice that the nerves and artery will likely be press upon. Also, since your spinal cord comes down the inside of the vertebrae, it will also be impinged.

In 2004 the Archives of Internal Medicine published an article stating that 1 out of 13 people have morning headaches. It’s interesting to note that the article never mentions the spinal cord being impinged by the vertebrae. That’s a major oversight!

Muscles merge into tendons, and the tendons insert into the bone.  As you stayed in the tilted position for hours, the muscles actually shortened to the new length.  Then you try to turn over, but the short muscles are holding your cervical vertebrae tightly, and they can’t lengthen.

The weight of your head pulls on the vertebrae, putting even more pressure on your spinal cord and nerves.  Plus, the tight muscles are pulling on the bones, causing pain on the bone.

Your Pillow is Involved in Your Sleeping Position and the Causes of  Headaches

sleep left side

The analogy I always use is; just as pulling your hair hurts your scalp, the muscle pulling on the tendons hurts the bone where it inserts.  In this case it is your neck muscles putting a strain on your cervical bones.  For example, if you sleep on your left side and your pillow is too thick, your head will be tilted up toward the ceiling. This position tightens the muscles on the right side of your neck.

sleeping in car and desk

Dozing off while sitting in a car waiting for someone to arrive, or while working for hours at your desk can also horizontal line sleepcause headaches. The pictures above show a strain on the neck when you fall asleep without any support on your neck. Both of these people will wake up with a headache, and with stiffness in their neck.

The best sleeping position to prevent headaches is to have your pillow adjusted so your head, neck, and spine are in a horizontal line. Play with your pillows, putting two thin pillows into one case if necessary. If your pillow is too thick try to open up a corner and pull out some of the stuffing.

 

sleeping on stomachSleeping on Your Back & Stomach

If you sleep on your back and have your head on the mattress, your spine is straight. All you need is a little neck pillow for support, and a pillow under your knees.

Stomach sleeping is the worst sleeping position for not only headaches, but so many other aches and pains. It’s a tough habit to break, but it can be done. This sleeping position deserves its own blog, which I will do in the future.

 

Treating the Muscles That Cause Headaches

sleeping position causes of headachesAll of the muscles that originate or insert into your cervical vertebrae, and many that insert into your shoulder and upper back, need to be treated.  The treatments are all taught in Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, in the neck and shoulder chapters.  Here is one treatment that will help you get relief.

Take either a tennis ball or the Perfect Ball (which really is Perfect because it has a solid center and soft outside) and press into your shoulder as shown.  You are treating a muscle called Levator Scapulae which pulls your cervical vertebrae out of alignment when it is tight.

Hold the press for about 30 seconds, release, and then press again.

Your pillow is a key to neck pain and headaches caused by your sleeping position.  It’s worth the time and energy to investigate how you sleep and correct your pillow.  I believe this blog will help you find the solution and will insure you have restful sleep each night.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

 

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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