Help Prevent Postpartum Depression with Omega-3s?

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Omega-3 Deficiency, Postpartum Depression

What Does Science Say About Depression During & After Pregnancy?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

prevent postpartum depressionCan you help prevent postpartum depression by using omega-3s?  Pregnancy and breastfeeding should be a wonderful time in any woman’s life, but sometimes the dark days of depression take hold. Postpartum depression used to be taboo. It was never talked about unless a mother did something terrible enough to make it into the headlines. Nowadays we realize that it is nothing to be ashamed of. In fact, it is fairly common.

The CDC estimates that 11-20% of women will suffer some degree of depression after childbirth. A similar percentage of women will experience prenatal depression (depression during pregnancy). To put these numbers into perspective, 20% of women can expect to suffer depression during their lifetime.

Of course, that doesn’t make prenatal or postnatal (postpartum) depression any easier to understand for any woman who has suffered from it. How could such a joyous time in their lives lead to depression?

The causes of prenatal and postnatal depression are multifactorial. Some, such as genetic predisposition and hormonal imbalances, may be beyond a woman’s control. Others may require medical intervention.

However, many women ask: “Is there something natural, some change in diet and lifestyle, I could undertake that might help with the depression?” This week we will look at a study suggesting that omega-3s might help with prenatal and postnatal depression.

 

Can Omega-3s Help With Prevent Postpartum Depression?

can omega3 prevent postpartum depressionThere are several reasons for suspecting that omega-3s might help with both prenatal and postnatal (postpartum) depression.

  • Many studies have suggested that omega-3 deficiency is implicated in depression.
  • A recent study DHA During Pregnancy  reported that pregnant women in the US are only getting around 1/5 the recommended amount of omega-3s from their diet.
  • During the second and third trimester, the fetus requires tremendous amounts of omega-3s, particularly DHA, to support its developing brain. This could be another instance of the fetus robbing an important nutrient from the mother’s body.

However, clinical studies to date have been inconclusive. Some have shown a clear correlation between omega-3 deficiency and pre/postnatal depressions. Others have not.

The authors of this study (Lin et al, Biological Psychiatry, doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.02.1182 ) did a meta-analysis of all studies measuring both omega-3 status and pre/postnatal depression. They included 12 studies with a total of 7739 women in their analysis. Of the women in the study 1094 (16.6%) suffered with prenatal and/or postnatal depression.

Their findings were:

  • Levels of total omega-3s and DHA were significantly lower in the women with prenatal and/or postnatal depression.
  • The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids was higher in the women with prenatal and/or postnatal depression.

 

What Does This Study Mean To You?

healthy livingThis study showed an association between omega-3 deficiency and depression during the prenatal and postnatal periods. It suggests, but does not prove, that omega-3 deficiency predisposes to pre/postnatal depression.  So, taking the recommended amounts of omega-3s may help prevent postpartum depression.

If this were the only reason to suggest adding extra omega-3s to your diet during pregnancy and lactation, it might not be sufficient to spur you to action. However, recent studies suggest that increasing your omega-3 intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding is also important for your child’s brain development. Thus, there are at least two important reasons to make sure your omega-3 intake is optimal during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

It is important to recognize that increasing your omega-3 intake may not be sufficient to cure pre- and postnatal depression by itself. It is probably best as part of a holistic approach. You should also:

  • Make sure you are getting adequate B vitamins (especially folic acid, B6 and B12). Clinical studies have also linked deficiencies of these nutrients with depression.
  • Make sure your protein intake is sufficient and limit sugars and simple carbohydrates. This helps stabilize blood sugar swings that can affect your mood.
  • Keep caffeine to a minimum and avoid alcohol.
  • Employ stress reduction techniques such as yoga, meditation, or conversations with friends.

Of course, there is nothing radical about any of these recommendations. These are the same recommendations every pregnant mother is being given for the health of their baby. For example, the importance of folic acid has been recognized for decades. The importance of omega-3s for your child’s brain development has received increasing recognition in recent years.

Finally, if natural approaches don’t work, consult your physician.

 

The Bottom Line

 

  • A recent meta-analysis has shown an association between omega-3 deficiency and both prenatal and postnatal depression.
  • That is significant in light of a recent study showing that pregnant women in the US are getting only 1/5 the recommended amount of omega-3s from their diet.
  • This study showed an association between omega-3 deficiency and depression during the prenatal and postnatal periods. It suggests, but does not prove, that omega-3 deficiency predisposes to pre/postnatal depression.
  • In addition, recent studies suggest that increasing your omega-3 intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding is also important for your child’s brain development. Thus, there is more than one reason to make sure your omega-3 intake is optimal during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Increasing your omega-3 intake may not cure pre/postnatal depression by itself. It is probably best as part of a holistic approach. You should also:
    • Make sure you are getting adequate B vitamins (especially folic acid, B6 and B12).
    • Make sure your protein intake is sufficient and limit sugars and simple carbohydrates.
    • Keep caffeine to a minimum and avoid alcohol.
    • Employ stress reduction techniques such as yoga, meditation, or conversations with friends.
  • There are many other things that can contribute to depression. If natural approaches don’t work, you should consult your physician.
  • For more details, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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High Protein Diets and Weight Loss

Posted October 16, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Do High Protein Diets Reduce Fat And Preserve Muscle?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

Healthy Diet food group, proteins, include meat (chicken or turkAre high protein diets your secret to healthy weight loss? There are lots of diets out there – high fat, low fat, Paleolithic, blood type, exotic juices, magic pills and potions. But recently, high protein diets are getting a lot of press. The word is that they preserve muscle mass and preferentially decrease fat mass.

If high protein diets actually did that, it would be huge because:

  • It’s the fat – not the pounds – that causes most of the health problems.
  • Muscle burns more calories than fat, so preserving muscle mass helps keep your metabolic rate high without dangerous herbs or stimulants – and keeping your metabolic rate high helps prevent both the plateau and yo-yo (weight regain) characteristic of so many diets.
  • When you lose fat and retain muscle you are reshaping your body – and that’s why most people are dieting to begin with.

So let’s look more carefully at the recent study that has been generating all the headlines (Pasiakos et al, The FASEB Journal, 27: 3837-3847, 2013).

The Study Design:

This was a randomized control study with 39 young (21), healthy and fit men and women who were only borderline overweight (BMI = 25). These volunteers were put on a 21 day weight loss program in which calories were reduced by 30% and exercise was increased by 10%. They were divided into 3 groups:

  • One group was assigned a diet containing the RDA for protein (about 14% of calories in this study design).
  • The second group’s diet contained 2X the RDA for protein (28% of calories)
  • The third group’s diet contained 3X the RDA for protein (42% of calories)

In the RDA protein group carbohydrate was 56% of calories, and fat was 30% of calories. In the other two groups the carbohydrate and fat content of the diets was decreased proportionally.

Feet_On_ScaleWhat Did The Study Show?

  • Weight loss (7 pounds in 21 days) was the same on all 3 diets.
  • The high protein (28% and 42%) diets caused almost 2X more fat loss (5 pounds versus 2.8 pounds) than the diet supplying the RDA amount of protein.
  • The high protein (28% and 42%) diets caused 2X less muscle loss (2.1 pounds versus 4.2 pounds) than the diet supplying the RDA amount of protein.
  • In case you didn’t notice, there was no difference in overall results between the 28% (2X the RDA) and 42% (3X the RDA) diets.

Pros And Cons Of The Study:

  • The con is fairly obvious. The participants in this study were all young, healthy and were not seriously overweight. If this were the only study of this type one might seriously question whether the results were applicable to middle aged, overweight coach potatoes. However, there have been several other studies with older, more overweight volunteers that have come to the same conclusion – namely that high protein diets preserve muscle mass and enhance fat loss.
  • The value of this study is that it defines for the first time the upper limit for how much protein is required to preserve muscle mass in a weight loss regimen. 28% of calories is sufficient, and there appear to be no benefit from increasing protein further. I would add the caveat that there are studies suggesting that protein requirements for preserving muscle mass may be greater in adults 50 and older.

The Bottom Line:

1)    Forget the high fat diets, low fat diets, pills and potions. High protein diets (~2X the RDA or 28% of calories) do appear to be the safest, most effective way to preserve muscle mass and enhance fat loss in a weight loss regimen.

2)     That’s not a lot of protein, by the way. The average American consumes almost 2X the RDA for protein on a daily basis. However, it is significantly more protein than the average American consumes when they are trying to lose weight. Salads and carrot sticks are great diet foods, but they don’t contain much protein.

3)     Higher protein intake does not appear to offer any additional benefit – at least in young adults.

4)     Not all high protein diets are created equal. What some people call high protein diets are laden with saturated fats or devoid of carbohydrate. The diet in this study, which is what I recommend, had 43% healthy carbohydrates and 30% healthy fats.

5)    These diets were designed to give 7 pounds of weight loss in 21 days – which is what the experts recommend. There are diets out there promising faster weight loss but they severely restrict calories and/or rely heavily on stimulants, they do not preserve muscle mass, and they often are not safe. In addition they are usually temporary.  I do not recommend them.

6)    This level of protein intake is safe for almost everyone. The major exception would be people with kidney disease, who should always check with their doctor before increasing protein intake. The only other caveat is that protein metabolism creates a lot of nitrogenous waste, so you should drink plenty of water to flush that waste out of your system. But, water is always a good idea.

7)     The high protein diets minimized, but did not completely prevent, muscle loss. Other studies suggest that adding the amino acid leucine to a high protein diet can give 100% retention of muscle mass in a weight loss regimen – but that’s another story for another day.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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