Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency And ADHD: Do The Effects Worsen From Generation to Generation

Written by Steve Chaney on . Posted in Food and Health, Issues

The Seventh Generation Revisited

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

Angry boy portraitDo the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on ADHD get worse from one generation to the next?

When I was a young man I read an article called “The Seventh Generation” in Organic Gardening magazine. That article was based on the old Indian admonition to consider the effects of everything we do on the seventh generation of our descendents.

The article was written before the environmental movement had co-opted the seventh generation concept. It was also written at a time when the food industry and the public had really started buying into the “better living through chemistry” concept. Processed foods, fast foods and artificial ingredients had just started to replace real foods in the American diet.

The author envisioned a world in which, if we continued to eat nutrient depleted foods, each generation would be sicker than the previous generation until by the seventh generation our descendents would live miserable, sickly, shortened lives – and nobody would know why.

That article made a powerful impression on me. I always like to keep my mind open to new ideas, especially ideas that challenge my preconceived thinking.

So I asked myself “Could it be true? Could eating nutrient depleted foods actually make each generation sicker than the previous generation?”

The author did not have the foresight to predict the obesity epidemic, so he did not envision a world in which we might live sicker, shorter lives in as little as one or two generations.

In addition the author was not a scientist, and his whole premise seemed scientifically implausible at the time. In those days we thought of DNA as the sole determinant of our genetic potential and as something that could not be influenced by our environment. Now we know the DNA and the proteins that coat the DNA can be influenced by the foods we eat and other environmental factors – and that those changes can be passed down from generation to generation. This has lead to a whole new scientific discipline called epigenetics.

Could it be true?

All of that leads me to this week’s article (Bondi et al, Biological Psychiatry, doi:10.1016/j.biosych.2013.06.007). Let me start by pointing out that this is an animal study. It was done with rats. I usually base my health tips on human clinical trials, but it is simply not possible to do multi-generation studies in humans.

The authors hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency could be associated with psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, autism, schizophrenia and depression. They based this hypothesis on the known role of omega-3 fatty acids in both brain development and maintenance of normal brain function. They also pointed to numerous clinical studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids could either prevent or reduce the severity of these diseases in humans.

They focused on adolescent rats as well as adult rats because these diseases frequently emerge, and are sometimes more severe, during the adolescent years in humans. Finally, they included second generation rats in the study because the change in our food supply that created an excess of omega-6 fatty acids and a deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids started in the 1960s and 1970s. They reasoned that if the effect of omega-3 deficiency is multigenerational it would be more severe in today’s human adolescents. As I said before, you can’t do multigenerational studies in humans, but you can do them in rats.

They separated litters of rat pups from omega-3 sufficient parents into two groups. One group was fed a diet sufficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and the second group was fed an identical diet except that it was deficient in omega-3 fatty acids. When the omega-3 sufficient group reached adulthood, they were mated and their offspring were continued on the same omega-3 sufficient diet. Similarly, when the omega-3 deficient group reached adulthood, they were mated and their offspring were raised on the same omega-3 deficient diet.

They put each group of rats through a series of behavioral tests when they were adolescents and again when they were adults. It is beyond my expertise to analyze the validity of rat behavioral assays, but the authors claim that the tests they employed were good measures of behavioral traits in human that would be classified as hyperactivity, anxiety, attention deficit disorder and reduced behavioral flexibility. [If you have adolescents in your household, some of those behaviors may sound awfully familiar].

The results were thought provoking. They found little evidence that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency triggered these behaviors in the first generation rats. However, they found strong evidence that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency triggered each of those behaviors in the second generation rats – and the effect was much stronger in the adolescent rats than in the adult rats.

The Bottom Line

At the present time, it isn’t possible to predict the significance of this study for you. This is a single study. And, it is an animal study. It could mean nothing, or it could mean everything.

We do know that the incidence of ADHD in US children has increased by 38% from 2003 to 2012 – and nobody really knows why. We also know that some studies have shown that the American diet is often deficient in omega-3 fatty acids. These same studies have suggested that providing adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may prevent or reduce the symptoms of ADHD.

I’m a hard-nosed scientist. So I’m not going to be one of those bloggers who writes sensational headlines claiming that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency, or some other nutritional factor, is the cause of our skyrocketing rates of ADHD.

But, it is enough to make you wonder “What if? Could it be true?”

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Do Omega-3s Lower Blood Pressure in Young, Healthy Adults?

Posted August 14, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

What Is The Omega-3 Index And Why Is It Important?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Do omega-3s lower blood pressure in healthy adults?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young adultsThe literature on the potential health benefits of omega-3s is very confusing. That’s because a lot of bad studies have been published. Many of them never determined the omega-3 status of their subjects prior to omega-3 supplementation. Others relied on dietary recalls of fish consumption, which can be inaccurate.

Fortunately, a much more accurate measure of omega-3 status has been developed and validated in recent years. It’s called the Omega-3 Index. Simply put, the Omega-3 Index is the percentage of EPA and DHA compared to 26 other fatty acids found in cellular membranes. Using modern technology, it can be determined from a single finger prick blood sample. It is a very accurate reflection of omega-3 intake relative to other fats in the diet over the past few months. More importantly, it is a measure of the omega-3 content of your cell membranes, which is a direct measure of your omega-3 nutritional status.

A recent extension of the Framingham Heart Study reported that participants with an Omega-3 Index >6.8% had a 39% lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those with an Omega-3 Index <4.2% (WS Harris et al, Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 12: 718-724, 2018 ). Although more work needs to be done, an Omega-3 Index of 4% or less is generally considered indicative of high cardiovascular risk, while 8% or better is considered indicative of low cardiovascular risk. For reference, the average American has an Omega-3 Index in the 4-5% range. In Japan, where fish consumption is much higher and cardiovascular risk much lower, the Omega-3 Index is in the 9-11% range.

Previous studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure to a modest extent. Thus, it is not surprising that more recent studies have shown an inverse correlation between Omega-3 Index and blood pressure. However, those studies have been done with older populations, many of whom had already developed high blood pressure.

From a public health point of view, it is much more interesting to investigate whether it might be possible to prevent high blood pressure in older adults by optimizing omega-3 intake in a young, healthy population, most of whom had not yet developed high blood pressure. Unfortunately, there were no studies looking at that population. The current study was designed to fill that gap.

 

How Was The Study Done?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young healthy adultsThe current study (M.G. Filipovic et al, Journal of Hypertension, 36: 1548-1554, 2018 ) was based on data collected from 2036 healthy adults, aged 25-41, from Liechtenstein. They were participants in the GAPP (Genetic and Phenotypic Determinants of Blood Pressure) study. Participants were excluded from the study if they had been diagnosed with high blood pressure and were taking medication to lower their blood pressure. They were also excluded if they had heart disease, chronic kidney disease, other severe illnesses, obesity, sleep apnea, or daily use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.

Blood samples were collected at the time of their enrollment in the study and frozen for subsequent determination of Omega-3 Index. Blood pressure was also measured at their time of enrollment in two different ways. The first was a standard blood pressure measurement in a doctor’s office.

For the second measurement they were given a wearable blood pressure monitor that recorded their blood pressure over 24 hours every 15 minutes during the day and every 30 minutes while they were sleeping. This is considered more accurate than a resting blood pressure measurement in a doctor’s office because it records the variation in blood pressure, while you are sleeping, while you are exercising, and while you go about your everyday activities.

 

Do Omega-3s Lower Blood Pressure In Young, Healthy Adults?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young adults equipmentNone of the participants in the study had significantly elevated blood pressure. The mean systolic and diastolic office blood pressures were 120±13 and 78±9 respectively. The average Omega-3 Index in this population was 4.6%, which is similar to the average Omega-3 Index in the United States.

When they compared the group with the highest Omega-3 Index (average = 5.8%) with the group with the lowest Omega-3 Index (average = 4.6%):

  • The office measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was decreased by 3.3% and 2.6% respectively
  • While those numbers appear small, the differences were highly significant.
  • The 24-hour blood pressure measurements showed a similar decrease.
  • Blood pressure measurements decreased linearly with increasing Omega-3 Index. [In studies of this kind, a linear dose-response is considered an internal validation of the differences observed between the group with the highest Omega-3 Index and the group with the lowest Omega-3 Index.]

The authors concluded: “A higher Omega-3 Index is associated with statistically significant, clinically relevant, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normotensive, young and healthy individuals. Diets rich omega-3 fatty acids may be a strategy for primary prevention of hypertension.”

 

What Does This Mean For You?

omega-3s lower blood pressure young adults questionPerhaps I should first comment on the significance of the relatively small decrease in blood pressure observed in this study.

  • These were young adults, all of whom had normal or near normal blood pressure.
  • The difference in Omega-3 Index was rather small (5.8% to 4.6%). None of the participants in the study were at the 8% or above that is considered optimal.
  • Liechtenstein is a small country located between Switzerland and Spain. Fish consumption is low and omega-3 supplement consumption is rare.

Under these conditions, even a small, but statistically significant, decrease in blood pressure is remarkable.

We should think of this study as the start of the investigation of the relationship between omega-3 status and blood pressure. Its weakness is that it only shows an association between high Omega-3 Index and low blood pressure. It does not prove cause and effect.

Its strength is that it is consistent with many other studies showing omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure. Furthermore, it suggests that the effect of omega-3s on blood pressure may also be seen in young, healthy adults who have not yet developed high blood pressure.

Finally, the authors suggested that a diet rich in omega-3s might reduce the incidence of high blood pressure by slowing the age-related increase in blood pressure that most Americans experience. This idea is logical, but speculative at present.

However, the GAPP study is designed to provide the answer to that question. It is a long-term study with follow-up examinations scheduled every 3-5 years. It will be interesting to see whether the author’s prediction holds true, and a higher Omega-3 Index is associated with a slower increase in blood pressure as the participants age.

 

Why Is The Omega-3 Index Important?

 

The authors of this study said: “The Omega-3 Index is very robust to short-term intake of omega-3 fatty acids and reliably reflects an individual’s long-term omega-3 status and tissue omega-3 content. Therefore, the Omega-3 Index has the potential to become a cardiovascular risk factor as much as the HbA1c is for people with diabetes…” That is a bit of an overstatement. HbA1c is a measure of disease progression for diabetes because it is a direct measure of blood sugar control.

In contrast, Omega-3 Index is merely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, if it is further validated by future studies, it is likely to be as important for predicting cardiovascular risk as are cholesterol levels and markers of inflammation.

However, to me the most important role of Omega-3 Index is in the design of future clinical studies. If anyone really wants to determine whether omega-3 supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk, high blood pressure, diabetes or any other health outcome they should:

  • Start with a population group with an Omega-3 Index in the deficient (4-5%) range.
  • Supplement with omega-3 fatty acids in a double blind, placebo-controlled manner.
  • Show that supplementation brought participants up to an optimal Omega-3 Index of 8% or greater.
  • Look at health outcomes such as heart attacks, cardiovascular deaths, hypertension, stroke, or depression.
  • Continue the study long enough for the beneficial effects of omega-3 supplementation to be measurable. For cardiovascular outcomes the American Heart Association has stated that at least two years are required to obtain meaningful results.

These are the kind of experiments that will be required to give definitive, reproducible results and resolve the confusion about the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

 

The Bottom Line

 

An accurate measure of omega-3 status has been developed and validated in recent years. It’s called the Omega-3 Index. Simply put, the Omega-3 Index is the percentage of EPA and DHA compared to 26 other fatty acids found in cellular membranes.

Although more work needs to be done, an Omega-3 Index of 4% or less is generally considered indicative of high cardiovascular risk while 8% or better is considered indicative of low cardiovascular risk.

Previous studies have shown an inverse correlation between Omega-3 Index and blood pressure. However, these studies have been done with older populations, many of whom had already developed high blood pressure.

From a public health point of view, it is much more interesting to investigate whether it might be possible to prevent high blood pressure in older adults by optimizing omega-3 intake in a young, healthy population, most of whom had not yet developed high blood pressure. Until now, there have been no studies looking at that population.

The study described in this article was designed to fill that gap. The participants in this study were ages 25-41, were healthy, and none of them had elevated blood pressure.

When the group with the highest Omega-3 Index (average = 5.8%) was compared with the group with the lowest Omega-3 Index (average = 4.6%):

  • Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were decreased
  • Blood pressure measurements decreased linearly with increasing Omega-3 Index.

The authors concluded: “A higher Omega-3 Index is associated with statistically significant, clinically relevant, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normotensive, young and healthy individuals. Diets rich omega-3 fatty acids may be a strategy for primary prevention of hypertension.”

Let me translate that last sentence into plain English for you. The authors were saying that optimizing omega-3 intake in young adults may slow the age-related increase in blood pressure and reduce the risk of them developing high blood pressure as they age. This may begin to answer the question “Do omega-3s lower blood pressure in young, healthy adults?”

Or even more simply put: Aging is inevitable. Becoming unhealthy is not.

For more details, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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