Teen Obesity and Heart Disease

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Uncategorized

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

teen obesity and heart diseaseI don’t need to tell you that we are in the midst of an obesity epidemic. Sadly, that obesity epidemic has even affected our children. Currently, one third of the adolescent population of the United States and other developed countries is overweight or obese, and those numbers are rapidly increasing.  Teen obesity and heart disease are not uncommon.

You probably also knew already that overweight and obesity in the early years increases the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and other causes among young adults, but a new study suggests that the consequences of overweight during the teen years may be much worse than we thought.

How Was This Study Done?

This study (Twig et al, The New England Journal of Medicine, DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1503840, Published April 13, 2016) was based on a national database of 2.3 million Israeli adolescents ages 16-19 (average 17.1) for whom height and weight were measure between 1967 and 2010. Israel has such an extraordinarily large database because one year before military service all Israeli adolescents are required to undergo a medical evaluation. This is predominantly a male population because Orthodox women are excluded from service.

military studyIsrael also has a national health service that keeps a comprehensive database of deaths. Therefore, the investigators were able to record all deaths in this group that were attributable to coronary heart disease, stroke, sudden death from an unknown cause, or a combination of all three categories, which they classified as total cardiovascular deaths through June 30, 2011. That means that the median age at the end of the study was around 40.

The investigators divided the subjects into groups based on their BMI (weight (kg)/ height (m)2), a measure of the leanness or obesity of each individual and compared BMI with deaths due to various kinds of heart disease.

What sets this study apart from all previous studies was the size of the database (2.3 million). Because of the very large number of subjects in the study the investigators:

  1.  Were able to accurately measure the effect of BMI on cardiovascular deaths in people aged 30-40, an age at which the incidence of cardiovascular deaths is relatively low.
  2. Were able to divide the subjects into seven BMI groupings, rather than the two or three used in most previous studies.

For example, most previous studies have simply compared individuals who were obese (BMI > 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI in 85th to 94th percentile) with everyone in the normal range (BMI in the 5th to 84th percentile).

This study further separated individuals within the normal BMI range to high-normal (BMI in the 75th to 84th percentile), mid-normal (BMI in the 50th to 74thpercentile), and low normal (BMI in the 25th to 49th percentile) and compared each group to individuals with BMIs in the 5th to 24th percentile.

Teen Obesity and Heart Disease:  Will Your Teen Die Prematurely?

The results of the study were pretty sobering.

teen deaths from heart disease1)     For teens who are obese (210 pounds for a 6’ boy and 175 pounds for a 5’6” girl) at 17, their risk of dying prematurely from:

  • Heart attack increases 4.9 fold
  • Stroke increases 2.6 fold
  • All cardiovascular causes increases 3.5 fold
  • The increased risk of dying from all kinds of cardiovascular disease was 2-fold greater by age 27 and 4-fold greater by the time the subjects had reached age 37-47.

2)     For teens who are overweight (185-209 pounds for a 6’ boy and 155-174 pounds for a 5’6” girl) at 17, their risk of dying prematurely from:

  • Heart attack increases 3.0 fold
  • Stroke increases 1.8 fold
  • All cardiovascular causes increases 2.2 fold

3)     For teens who are at high-normal weight (175-184 pounds for a 6’ boy and 145-154 pounds for a 5’6” girl) at 17, their risk of dying prematurely from:

  • Heart attack increases 2.0 fold
  • Stroke increases 1.4 fold
  • All cardiovascular causes increases 1.8 fold

4)     Perhaps the most surprising finding was that even for teens who are at mid-normal weight (155-174 pounds for a 6’ boy and 130-144 pounds for a 5’6” girl) at 17, their risk of dying prematurely from:

  • Heart attack increase 1.5 fold
  • All cardiovascular causes increases 1.3 fold

5)     The number of teen girls in the study was much less, but they appeared to have similar increased risk of cardiovascular deaths with increased BMI compared to the boys in the study.

The message is clear on teen obesity and heart disease.

  • Obesity and overweight during the teen years are killers. They can lead to a significant increase in deaths due to heart attacks, strokes and all cause cardiovascular mortality long before those teens reach the age of 50.
  • Even teens who are in the higher end of what is considered a normal weight range are at increased risk of cardiovascular mortality long before they reach their golden years.

The Bottom Line

A recent study compared the BMI of 2.3 million Israeli teens (average age 17) with cardiovascular deaths over the next few decades

1)     Teens who were overweight or obese had a 2-fold greater risk of dying from cardiovascular disease by age 27 and 4-fold greater risk by the time they reached age 37-47.

2)     Even teens who were at the upper end of the normal weight range had a 1.8-fold increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.

The message is clear.

  • Obesity and overweight during the teen years are killers. They can lead to a significant increase in deaths due to heart attacks, strokes and all cause cardiovascular mortality long before those teens reach the age of 50.
  • Even teens who are in the higher end of what is considered a normal weight range are at increased risk of cardiovascular mortality before they reach their golden years.

     These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Latest Article

How to Choose the Right Pillow

Posted April 17, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Wake Up Each Morning Pain Free

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

how to choose the right pillow without headachesThe way you sleep is often a key to discovering the cause of headaches and more. If you wake up with neck pain, a headache, or you suffer from ringing in your ears, dizziness, or ear pain, there is a good possibility that it may be caused by the way you are sleeping. Your pillow may be the culprit.  But if you need to know how to choose the right pillow for you, it’s easy.   It just takes a little “investigation.”

 

How to Choose the Right Pillow if You Sleep On Your Side

Your head, neck, and spine need to always stay in a nice straight line, just as it is when you are standing up, but that takes a little thought and understanding of the way you sleep.  So, get comfy in your bed and then notice how your head is resting.

how to choose the right pillow to sleep painfreeIf you sleep on your side, your pillow needs to be just the right size, so your head doesn’t point down toward the mattress (your pillow is too soft) or up to the ceiling (your pillow is too thick). Either of these positions will make the muscles on the side of your neck stay in the contracted position for hours and pull your vertebrae in that direction, especially when you try to turn over to your other side.

Your SCM Muscle May Cause Serious Problems

You also need to notice if you turn your head a bit, especially if you are turning into your pillow or turning your head up toward away from your pillow. In either of these two cases you will be causing your sternocleidomastoid (SCM for short) to be held shortened for hours.

Your SCM originates on your collarbone and inserts into the bone behind your ear.  When it contracts you turn your head to the opposite side. However, if the muscle is tight (for example, when you’ve held your head turned toward one side for an extended period of time) and then you bring your head back so you are facing forward, the tight muscle will pull on the bone behind your ear and cause havoc.

The symptoms for a tight SCM are tinnitus (ringing in the ear), dizziness, loss of equilibrium, ear pain, headaches, pain in the eye and around the skull, pain at the top of the head, and even pain in the throat. Amazing! What’s even more amazing is that it’s rare that this muscle is considered when a medical professional is searching for the cause of your symptoms.

These are the things to know when considering how to choose the right pillow if you sleep on your side.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Back

how to choose the right pillow for sleeping on your backIf you sleep on your back, your head should be on the mattress (not propped up with a pillow) and you should have a tiny support (like a folded washcloth) under your neck.  Or, you can have a wedge pillow that starts at your mid-back and gently raises your entire trunk and head up while still allowing your head and back to be in a straight line.

It’s always a challenge for people who toss and turn during the night, sometimes on their side and sometimes on their back.  The best thing I’ve found for this situation is to have the pillow below shoulder level so when you turn on your side your shoulder will automatically slide to the edge of the pillow while still supporting your head properly, and when you turn onto your back, the pillow will start at shoulder level so your head and neck are supported, but your head is being pushed in a way that causes your chin to move down to your chest.

hip pain causes and treatment pain freeIt’s tricky, but I can personally attest to the fact that it will work.  I can always tell when I’ve had my head tilted (I toss and turn during the night) because I will wake with a headache. When that happens I’m grateful that I know how to self-treat the muscles of my neck and shoulders so the headache is eliminated quickly.  If you already have Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living,  you can self-treat all your neck and shoulder muscles to release the tension.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Stomach

If you sleep on your stomach, this is the one position that is so bad that it behooves you to force yourself to change your position. Your head is turned to the side and held still for hours, putting a severe strain on all your cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Not only will this cause headaches, tinnitus, and a list of other pains, but it can cause problems down your entire spine. It can also impinge on the nerves that pass through the vertebrae on their way to your organs.

If you do sleep that way, let me know and I’ll give you some suggestions that work to change your habit of sleeping. It takes time and energy, but the results are worth the effort.

In every case, the way you sleep may cause neck pain that won’t go away until the pillow situation is resolved.

Now you should know how to choose the right pillow for the way you sleep.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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