The Dangers of Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy

Does Your Prenatal Contain Enough Iodine?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

iodine deficiency during pregnancyA recent study (S.M. O’Kane et al, British Journal of Nutrition, doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516003925)  concluded that 2/3 of Irish women had no idea that iodine was important during pregnancy. In fact, 57% of the women had no idea what iodine was, and 41% were unable to name any health problem related to iodine deficiency. The authors of the study considered this ignorance about iodine to be alarming. I’ll discuss why below.

First, let’s consider the situation in the United States. I suspect ignorance about the importance of iodine is just as widespread in the United States as it is in Ireland. Think about the nutrients we have been told are essential for healthy pregnancy outcomes.

  • We have heard about the importance of iron and calcium for decades.
  • The importance of folic acid and other B vitamins has been widely publicized over the last 20 years.
  • In recent years, we have learned about the importance of omega-3s, especially DHA.

But who has been telling us about the importance of iodine? Almost nobody.

What Are The Recommendations For Iodine Intake?

The RDAs for iodine are:

  • 150 ug/day for adults
  • 220 ug/day for pregnant women
  • 290 ug/day for breastfeeding women

How Common Is Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy?

iodine deficiency pregnant womenHere are some quick facts about iodine deficiency in the US from a recent American Academy of Pediatrics position paper  and the National Institutes of Health Consumer information site:

  • Approximately 1/3 of pregnant and lactating women in the United States are at least marginally iodine deficient.
  • To meet their RDA requirements for iodine during pregnancy and lactation the American Thyroid Association, The National Academy of Sciences, and The American Academy of Pediatrics all recommend pregnant and lactating women take supplements containing 150 ug of iodine.
  • Although most pregnant and lactating women take supplements:
    • Only 50% of prenatal supplements in the United States contain iodine.
    • Even worse, only 15% of the supplements pregnant and lactating women take contain iodine (some pregnant and lactating women take multivitamins rather than prenatal supplements).
  • Labeling can be deceptive. Most multivitamins and prenatal supplements specify the amount of potassium iodide in the supplement, not iodine. It requires at least 197 ug of potassium iodide to provide 150 ug of iodine.

In short, many pregnant and lactating women in this country are not getting enough iodine from their diet and the supplements they are taking may not provide the iodine they need.

 

Why Are So Many Americans Deficient In Iodine?

iodine deficiencyThe best and most reliable natural sources of iodine are seaweeds and ocean fish. Meats, dairy, and grains can be moderate sources of iodine, but their iodine content is highly variable. It depends on the iodine content of the soil in which they were produced and how they were processed.

Because the soil in the interior of this country is very low in iodine, crops and animals raised in much of our country are also low in iodine. That lead to widespread iodine deficiency in this country prior to the introduction of iodized salt in the 1920s. Iodized salt largely eliminated iodine deficiency in the 1920s. However, since the 1970s, iodine deficiency has been gradually returning to this country for many reasons.

  • In the 1920s most of our food was prepared at home, so most of the salt in our diet was iodized. However, today:
  • Processed foods are replacing home-cooked meals, and the salt used in processed foods is not iodized.
  • Much of the salt we use today is “gourmet” salt that is not iodized. Even sea salt often contains far less iodine than iodized salt.
  • Seaweed has never been considered a delicacy in this country, and increasingly, Americans are avoiding ocean fish because of concerns about our polluted oceans.
  • Iodine in commercial breads has traditionally come from the use of iodate as a dough conditioner. Today iodate has largely been replaced with bromide in commercial bread making. Not only does this trend decrease the amount of iodine available in our diet, but bromide  also interferes with iodine utilization in our bodies.
  • Iodine in milk has traditionally come from the use of iodine-containing disinfectants to clean milk cans and teats. However, they have largely been replaced with other disinfectants.

Together these trends have combined to create the “perfect storm”. Iodine deficiency has, once again, become a major health concern in the US and other developed countries.

 

The Dangers Of Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy

dangers of iodine deficiency during pregnancyIodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone. Accordingly, inadequate iodine intake leads to hypothyroidism. Thus, you might expect iodine deficiency to be associated with symptoms like fatigue, sensitivity to cold, dry skin, and unexpected weight gain.

However, you may not have known that thyroid hormone is also essential for bone and neural development during fetal development and infancy. Because of that, thyroid hormone production increases dramatically during pregnancy and lactation (Hence, the increase in iodine requirement for pregnant and lactating women).

I can’t emphasize strongly enough the consequences of iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation. Here is what the experts say:

 

The Bottom Line

 

  • Iodine is important for bone and neural development during both fetal development and infancy. Because of this, iodine requirements are significantly higher during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • The iodine content of the American diet has decreased significantly since the 1970s. Today approximately 1/3 of pregnant and lactating women in the United States are at least marginally iodine deficient.
  • The National Institutes of Health, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the World Health Organization all warn that even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can result in cognitive impairment in children.
  • Because of this, the American Thyroid Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that pregnant and lactating women take a supplement providing 150 ug of iodine. That corresponds to at least 197 ug of potassium iodide (the unit shown on most supplement labels).
  • Only 50% of prenatal supplements and 15% of multivitamin supplements contain iodine. Many that do contain iodine do not provide the recommended 197 ug of potassium iodide.

In short, many pregnant and lactating women in this country are not getting enough iodine from their diet; the consequences of even mild iodine deficiency are significant; and the supplements they are taking may not provide the iodine they need.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Trackback from your site.

Comments (1)

  • Richard O Brouse

    |

    Dr. Chaney,
    What an excellent article on iodine and the need in pregnancy.

    Reply

Leave a comment

Recent Videos From Dr. Steve Chaney

READ THE ARTICLE
READ THE ARTICLE

Latest Article

How to Choose the Right Pillow

Posted April 17, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Wake Up Each Morning Pain Free

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

how to choose the right pillow without headachesThe way you sleep is often a key to discovering the cause of headaches and more. If you wake up with neck pain, a headache, or you suffer from ringing in your ears, dizziness, or ear pain, there is a good possibility that it may be caused by the way you are sleeping. Your pillow may be the culprit.  But if you need to know how to choose the right pillow for you, it’s easy.   It just takes a little “investigation.”

 

How to Choose the Right Pillow if You Sleep On Your Side

Your head, neck, and spine need to always stay in a nice straight line, just as it is when you are standing up, but that takes a little thought and understanding of the way you sleep.  So, get comfy in your bed and then notice how your head is resting.

how to choose the right pillow to sleep painfreeIf you sleep on your side, your pillow needs to be just the right size, so your head doesn’t point down toward the mattress (your pillow is too soft) or up to the ceiling (your pillow is too thick). Either of these positions will make the muscles on the side of your neck stay in the contracted position for hours and pull your vertebrae in that direction, especially when you try to turn over to your other side.

Your SCM Muscle May Cause Serious Problems

You also need to notice if you turn your head a bit, especially if you are turning into your pillow or turning your head up toward away from your pillow. In either of these two cases you will be causing your sternocleidomastoid (SCM for short) to be held shortened for hours.

Your SCM originates on your collarbone and inserts into the bone behind your ear.  When it contracts you turn your head to the opposite side. However, if the muscle is tight (for example, when you’ve held your head turned toward one side for an extended period of time) and then you bring your head back so you are facing forward, the tight muscle will pull on the bone behind your ear and cause havoc.

The symptoms for a tight SCM are tinnitus (ringing in the ear), dizziness, loss of equilibrium, ear pain, headaches, pain in the eye and around the skull, pain at the top of the head, and even pain in the throat. Amazing! What’s even more amazing is that it’s rare that this muscle is considered when a medical professional is searching for the cause of your symptoms.

These are the things to know when considering how to choose the right pillow if you sleep on your side.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Back

how to choose the right pillow for sleeping on your backIf you sleep on your back, your head should be on the mattress (not propped up with a pillow) and you should have a tiny support (like a folded washcloth) under your neck.  Or, you can have a wedge pillow that starts at your mid-back and gently raises your entire trunk and head up while still allowing your head and back to be in a straight line.

It’s always a challenge for people who toss and turn during the night, sometimes on their side and sometimes on their back.  The best thing I’ve found for this situation is to have the pillow below shoulder level so when you turn on your side your shoulder will automatically slide to the edge of the pillow while still supporting your head properly, and when you turn onto your back, the pillow will start at shoulder level so your head and neck are supported, but your head is being pushed in a way that causes your chin to move down to your chest.

hip pain causes and treatment pain freeIt’s tricky, but I can personally attest to the fact that it will work.  I can always tell when I’ve had my head tilted (I toss and turn during the night) because I will wake with a headache. When that happens I’m grateful that I know how to self-treat the muscles of my neck and shoulders so the headache is eliminated quickly.  If you already have Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living,  you can self-treat all your neck and shoulder muscles to release the tension.

How To Choose The Right Pillow If You Sleep On Your Stomach

If you sleep on your stomach, this is the one position that is so bad that it behooves you to force yourself to change your position. Your head is turned to the side and held still for hours, putting a severe strain on all your cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Not only will this cause headaches, tinnitus, and a list of other pains, but it can cause problems down your entire spine. It can also impinge on the nerves that pass through the vertebrae on their way to your organs.

If you do sleep that way, let me know and I’ll give you some suggestions that work to change your habit of sleeping. It takes time and energy, but the results are worth the effort.

In every case, the way you sleep may cause neck pain that won’t go away until the pillow situation is resolved.

Now you should know how to choose the right pillow for the way you sleep.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

About The Author

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

UA-43257393-1