The Dangers of Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy

Does Your Prenatal Contain Enough Iodine?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

iodine deficiency during pregnancyA recent study (S.M. O’Kane et al, British Journal of Nutrition, doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516003925)  concluded that 2/3 of Irish women had no idea that iodine was important during pregnancy. In fact, 57% of the women had no idea what iodine was, and 41% were unable to name any health problem related to iodine deficiency. The authors of the study considered this ignorance about iodine to be alarming. I’ll discuss why below.

First, let’s consider the situation in the United States. I suspect ignorance about the importance of iodine is just as widespread in the United States as it is in Ireland. Think about the nutrients we have been told are essential for healthy pregnancy outcomes.

  • We have heard about the importance of iron and calcium for decades.
  • The importance of folic acid and other B vitamins has been widely publicized over the last 20 years.
  • In recent years, we have learned about the importance of omega-3s, especially DHA.

But who has been telling us about the importance of iodine? Almost nobody.

What Are The Recommendations For Iodine Intake?

The RDAs for iodine are:

  • 150 ug/day for adults
  • 220 ug/day for pregnant women
  • 290 ug/day for breastfeeding women

How Common Is Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy?

iodine deficiency pregnant womenHere are some quick facts about iodine deficiency in the US from a recent American Academy of Pediatrics position paper  and the National Institutes of Health Consumer information site:

  • Approximately 1/3 of pregnant and lactating women in the United States are at least marginally iodine deficient.
  • To meet their RDA requirements for iodine during pregnancy and lactation the American Thyroid Association, The National Academy of Sciences, and The American Academy of Pediatrics all recommend pregnant and lactating women take supplements containing 150 ug of iodine.
  • Although most pregnant and lactating women take supplements:
    • Only 50% of prenatal supplements in the United States contain iodine.
    • Even worse, only 15% of the supplements pregnant and lactating women take contain iodine (some pregnant and lactating women take multivitamins rather than prenatal supplements).
  • Labeling can be deceptive. Most multivitamins and prenatal supplements specify the amount of potassium iodide in the supplement, not iodine. It requires at least 197 ug of potassium iodide to provide 150 ug of iodine.

In short, many pregnant and lactating women in this country are not getting enough iodine from their diet and the supplements they are taking may not provide the iodine they need.

 

Why Are So Many Americans Deficient In Iodine?

iodine deficiencyThe best and most reliable natural sources of iodine are seaweeds and ocean fish. Meats, dairy, and grains can be moderate sources of iodine, but their iodine content is highly variable. It depends on the iodine content of the soil in which they were produced and how they were processed.

Because the soil in the interior of this country is very low in iodine, crops and animals raised in much of our country are also low in iodine. That lead to widespread iodine deficiency in this country prior to the introduction of iodized salt in the 1920s. Iodized salt largely eliminated iodine deficiency in the 1920s. However, since the 1970s, iodine deficiency has been gradually returning to this country for many reasons.

  • In the 1920s most of our food was prepared at home, so most of the salt in our diet was iodized. However, today:
  • Processed foods are replacing home-cooked meals, and the salt used in processed foods is not iodized.
  • Much of the salt we use today is “gourmet” salt that is not iodized. Even sea salt often contains far less iodine than iodized salt.
  • Seaweed has never been considered a delicacy in this country, and increasingly, Americans are avoiding ocean fish because of concerns about our polluted oceans.
  • Iodine in commercial breads has traditionally come from the use of iodate as a dough conditioner. Today iodate has largely been replaced with bromide in commercial bread making. Not only does this trend decrease the amount of iodine available in our diet, but bromide  also interferes with iodine utilization in our bodies.
  • Iodine in milk has traditionally come from the use of iodine-containing disinfectants to clean milk cans and teats. However, they have largely been replaced with other disinfectants.

Together these trends have combined to create the “perfect storm”. Iodine deficiency has, once again, become a major health concern in the US and other developed countries.

 

The Dangers Of Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy

dangers of iodine deficiency during pregnancyIodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone. Accordingly, inadequate iodine intake leads to hypothyroidism. Thus, you might expect iodine deficiency to be associated with symptoms like fatigue, sensitivity to cold, dry skin, and unexpected weight gain.

However, you may not have known that thyroid hormone is also essential for bone and neural development during fetal development and infancy. Because of that, thyroid hormone production increases dramatically during pregnancy and lactation (Hence, the increase in iodine requirement for pregnant and lactating women).

I can’t emphasize strongly enough the consequences of iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation. Here is what the experts say:

 

The Bottom Line

 

  • Iodine is important for bone and neural development during both fetal development and infancy. Because of this, iodine requirements are significantly higher during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • The iodine content of the American diet has decreased significantly since the 1970s. Today approximately 1/3 of pregnant and lactating women in the United States are at least marginally iodine deficient.
  • The National Institutes of Health, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the World Health Organization all warn that even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can result in cognitive impairment in children.
  • Because of this, the American Thyroid Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that pregnant and lactating women take a supplement providing 150 ug of iodine. That corresponds to at least 197 ug of potassium iodide (the unit shown on most supplement labels).
  • Only 50% of prenatal supplements and 15% of multivitamin supplements contain iodine. Many that do contain iodine do not provide the recommended 197 ug of potassium iodide.

In short, many pregnant and lactating women in this country are not getting enough iodine from their diet; the consequences of even mild iodine deficiency are significant; and the supplements they are taking may not provide the iodine they need.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (1)

  • Richard O Brouse

    |

    Dr. Chaney,
    What an excellent article on iodine and the need in pregnancy.

    Reply

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Latest Article

Relieve Hip Pain After Sitting or Driving

Posted June 20, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Relief is Just a Few Movements Away!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

relieve hip pain after sittingI’m on a long business trip, speaking and teaching in Tennessee and New York, and the drive from Sarasota, FL meant many hours of driving over several days.  One of my stops was to visit with Suzanne and Dr. Steve Chaney at their home in North Carolina.  It was that long drive that became the inspiration for this blog.

After all those hours of driving, my hip was really sore. It was painful to stand up. While talking to Suzanne and Dr. Chaney I was using my elbow to work on the sore area, and when we were discussing the blog for this month it only made sense to share this technique with you.  So, Dr. Chaney took pictures and I sat at his computer to write.  I thought others may want to how to relieve hip pain after sitting or driving for long periods.

What Causes Anterior Hip Pain?

As I’ve mentioned in posts in the past, sitting is the #1 cause of low back pain, and it also causes anterior hip pain (pain localized towards the front of the hip) because the muscles (psoas and iliacus) pass through the hip and insert into the tendons that then insert into the top of the thigh bone.  When hip pain reliefyou try to stand up, the tight muscle tendons will pull on your thigh bone.  The other thing that happens is the point where the muscle merges into the tendon will be very tight and tender to touch. You aren’t having pain at your hip or thigh bone, but at the muscular point where the muscle and tendon merge.

It’s a bit confusing to describe, but you’ll find it if you sit down and put your fingers onto the tip of your pelvis, then just slide your fingers down toward your thigh and out about 2”. The point is right along the crease where your leg meets your trunk.

The muscle you are treating is the Rectus Femoris, where it merges from the tendon into the muscle fibers.  Follow this link, thigh muscle, to see the muscle and it will be a bit easier to visualize.

You need to be pressing deeply into the muscle, like you’re trying to press the bone and the muscle just happens to be in the way.  Move your fingers around a bit and you’ll find it.

Easy Treatment for Anterior Hip Pain After Sitting

relieve hip painHere is an easy treatment for hip pain after sitting you can administer yourself.  First, sit as I am, with your leg out and slightly turned.

Find the tender point with your fingers and then put your elbow into it as shown.

It’s important to have your arm opened so the point of your elbow is on top of the spasm.  It’s a bit tricky, but if you move about a bit you’ll come on to it, and it will hurt.  Keep the pressure so it’s tolerable, not excruciating.

After you have worked on this point for a few minutes you can move to the second part of the treatment.

hip pain treatmentPut the heel of your “same-side” hand onto your thigh as close to the spasm as you can get.  Lift up your fingers so the pressure is only on the heel of your hand.  You can use your opposite hand to help give more pressure.

Press down hard and deeply slide down the muscle, going toward your knee.  You can also kneed it like you would kneed bread dough, really forcing the muscle fibers to relax.

I’m putting in a picture from a previous blog to explain how you can also treat this point of your rectus femoris by using a ball on the floor.

As shown in this picture, lie on the floor with the ball on your hip muscle, and then slightly turn your body toward the floor so the ball rolls toward the front of your body. You may need to move the ball down an inch or so to get to your Rectus Femoris.

When you feel the pain, you’re on the muscle.  Just stay there for a minute or so, and if you want you can move so the ball goes along the muscle fibers all the way to your knee.

pain free living book coverIt may be a challenge to find this point, but it’s well-worth the effort!

In my book, Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, I teach how to treat all the muscles that cause pain from your head to your feet.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

julie donnelly

About The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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