The Fake Chocolate Study

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Health Current Events

How To Game The Peer Review Process

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

fake chocolate studyPeer review is supposed to assure that clinical studies are well designed, well executed, and correctly interpreted before they are accepted for publication. That is why I frequently advise you, my readers, to look for clinical studies on their nutritional products that are published in peer reviewed scientific journals as a criteria for choosing a supplement company that you can trust.

But, can the system be gamed? Sadly, the answer is yes. There are journals that only pay lip service to the peer review process. Earlier this year an investigative reporter set out to prove just how easy it is to game the peer review process. It is a fascinating story of how a journalist created the fake chocolate study.

Creating The Fake Chocolate Study Hoax

chocolateThe fake chocolate study was a hoax put together by John Bohannon, an investigative journalist and correspondent to Science (a very well respected scientific journal) to test the peer review system. The study was real, but it was seriously flawed. For example, it had only 16 subjects, there was no effort made to determine what the subjects were eating other than chocolate, and the conclusions were not supported by the data. In short, it was a very bad study—one that would have been rejected by any reputable journal.

For the purposes of the test he called himself Dr. Johannes Bohannon from the “Institute of Diet and Health”, a nonexistent entity that consisted of nothing more than a fake website he set up. He then wrote up the study and titled it “Chocolate with High Cocoa Content as a Weight Loss Accelerator” with the conclusion (not supported by the data) that “Long-term weight loss, however, seems to occur easier and more successfully by adding chocolate. The effect of chocolate, the so-called ‘weight loss turbo’, seems to go hand in hand with personal well-being, which was significantly higher than in the control groups.”

Journals Take The Bait

baitIn March 2015 he submitted the article to 20 online journals. Several accepted it within 24 hours. He chose to publish it in the “International Archives of Medicine.” His paper was published online without any revisions a mere two weeks later. [Note: You should not assume the fact that several out of just 20 journals accepted his paper as in indication that a significant percentage of journals accept sub-standard papers without serious peer review. He had, in fact, done previous research for Science magazine identifying those journals most likely to accept flawed studies. It was those types of journals he sent his study to.]

John Bohannon was later quoted as saying “Editors of reputable journals reject [these kinds of studies] out of hand without even sending them to peer reviewers. But there are plenty of journals that care more about money than reputation.” [It costs $650 to have an article published in the International Archives of Medicine.]

The Media Fans The Flames

flamesIf this study had just been published in an obscure journal and had been ignored, that would have been bad enough. But the story gets even worse.  He then created a press release that he sent to news outlets. The press release made some pretty outrageous statements and even contained a link to an unrelated music video. However, the study made news headlines in more than 20 countries in half a dozen languages. For example, headlines from the Daily Express in England blared: “Chocolate Accelerates Weight Loss: Research Claims it Lowers Cholesterol and Aids Sleep.”

John Bohannon’s take was: “The key is to exploit journalist’s incredible laziness. If you lay out the information just right, you can shape the story that emerges in the media almost like you were writing those stories yourself. In fact, that’s literally what you are doing, since many reporters just copied and pasted our text.”

For the complete story of how John Bohannon pulled off this hoax, read his blog post about the “fake study.

 

The Bottom Line

  • An investigative reporter for Science magazine demonstrated recently just how easy it is to get a fake study published in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • He created a completely bogus study about chocolate aiding weight loss.
  • He submitted it to several journals that he had previously identified as having substandard peer review processes.
  • Several journals accepted it within 24 hours without any peer review process. One published it two weeks later without any revisions.
  • The story of a new “study” showing that chocolate aids weight loss was picked up by the new media and made the headlines in more than 20 countries in half a dozen languages.
  • The vast majority of journals have a very exacting peer review process, which means that most published clinical studies have been thoroughly reviewed and edited prior to publication. For the most part the peer review process works exactly as it is supposed to.
  • However, this hoax shows just how easy it would be for an unethical supplement company to subvert the peer review process and publish bogus studies to support their product claims. That is why when you are choosing a supplement company it is important to choose one with a reputation for scientific integrity.
  • This hoax also shows just how easy it is for bogus information to be picked up by the media and make it into the headlines. You simply cannot believe everything you read in the press, see on the TV and view online. That is why I created “Health Tips From The Professor.”  I wanted to create a place where you can go for accurate information.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (2)

  • Opal Hernandez

    |

    Wow, great article. thanks for all your info. I really appreciate it.
    Opal

    Reply

  • Mimi Vollum

    |

    It’s almost a full-time job trying to keep up with all the many forms of fake news these days! Thanks for your always-helpful information.

    Reply

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Latest Article

Groin Pain Relief

Posted April 16, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

What Is The Pectineus Muscle And Why Is It Important?

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT –The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Spring Is In The Air

spring floridaI remember as a child we sang “Though April showers may come your way…they bring the flowers that bloom in May…”

Of course, here in Florida we are blessed with flowers all year, but there’s still a lovely feeling that happens in Spring.  It’s still cool enough most days to go out running, and the humidity is still low.  Traffic will soon be easing up as our friends from the north start their trek back home, and daylight savings time is giving us more time to get to the beach for sunset.  Lovely!

Fun Facts About Spring….

  • The earliest known use of the term “spring cleaning” was in 1857
  • The word “spring” has been used for the season since the 16th century
  • The first day of spring is called the vernal equinox
  • On the first day of spring, the sunrise and sunset are about 12 hours apart everywhere on earth
  • Spring fever isn’t just a saying. Experts say the body changes due to the temperature and can cause an upset in your health.
  • The actual start of spring varies from March 19th to the 21st, but it is commonly celebrated on the 21st.

Do you like to garden?  Now is the perfect time to get your gardens planted so you’ll have home grown veggies for the entire summer.  For me, it’s also a great time to do some spring cleaning and get the house in order before the summer closes all the windows and the air conditioning becomes our indoor relief.

But these activities can also cause a strain on muscles, so don’t forget to take care of yourself. If you put too much strain on muscles you haven’t used all winter, you can develop problems and need groin pain relief.

 

A Tiny Muscle Can Cause Groin Pain

groin pain relief pectineusLately I’ve had several clients come in because of groin pain that has their medical practitioners stumped.  Their symptoms are varied, but most complain that it feels like they hit their pubic bone with a rubber mallet.  Ouch!

One client loves to ride her horse, but the pain had prevented that for several weeks. Another was considering selling the motorcycle that she and her husband love because she just can’t sit on it anymore.

Several years ago, I had a male client tell me that he had this same pain and he was told it could be his prostrate causing the issue.  Fortunately, that wasn’t he problem at all.

The muscle that caused all these problems, and a lot more, is the Pectineus.

The Pectineus muscle originates on your pubic bone and inserts into the very top of your inner thigh bone (femur).

You can see the Pectineus and surrounding muscles more clearly by going to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pectineus_muscle

Most muscles have more than one function, and this is true for the Pectineus.  The function we’ll look at today is called adduction.  It brings your leg in toward midline.  If you think of a soccer player kicking the ball with the inside of his ankle, it was the Pectineus that helped draw his leg in so he could do the shot.

Each of my clients had pain while trying to bring their leg out so they could sit on their horse, or on their motorcycle.  The tight muscle was pulling on their pubic bone and causing a severe strain.

This muscle is easier to have someone else treat it for you because of its location but give it a try and see if you can locate & treat it yourself.

 

Groin Pain Relief

groin pain relief treatmentThe picture to the left is showing an athlete self-treating her adductors.  These muscles, and the Pectineus muscle, all originate at the same point on the pubic bone.  The picture is showing her massaging the middle of the adductors.

To reach the Pectineus, move the ball all the way up to the crease in your leg.  You can do the treatment with a ball, but because of the size of the muscle and its location, it’s easier to do it with your fingertips.

Sit as this athlete is sitting, and even bring your opposite leg up so your foot is flat on the floor.  For example, in this picture, the athlete would bring her right leg up so her right foot is on the floor, and then lean a bit further onto her left hip.  That opens up the area so she can reach a bit easier into the muscle while using her fingertips.

Press into the muscle, being careful to feel for a pulse, and moving if you feel one.  If the Pectineus is in spasm, you’ll know it immediately when you press on it.  If it’s not in spasm, you won’t be able to find it at all.

Remember to stay within your pain tolerance level, this isn’t a “no pain, no gain” situation.  Never go deeper than what feels tender, but not so much that you want to faint. Hold the pressure for 15 seconds. Then let up on the pressure, but keep your fingers in the same place.

Repeat this movement several times. Each time it will hurt less, and eventually it won’t hurt at all.  That’s when the muscle has completely released, and you will have relief from the pain.

It’s as simple as that!

Why stay in pain when it’s so easy to find the muscular source of the problem and eliminate it?

calf cramps remedy bookTreat Yourself to Pain-Free Living (https://julstromethod.com/product/treat-yourself-to-pain-free-living-hardcopy/). It is filled with over 100 pictures and descriptions proven to show you how to find and self-treat muscle spasms from head to foot!

Join the 1000’s of people worldwide who have discovered that tight muscles were the true source of pains they thought were from arthritis, fibromyalgia, and other serious conditions.  You have nothing to lose, and everything to gain by releasing tight muscles.

Treat Yourself to Pain-Free Living is your step-by-step guide to pain relief!

 

Wishing you well,

 

Julie Donnelly

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

julie donnellyAbout The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

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