The Fake Chocolate Study

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Health Current Events

How To Game The Peer Review Process

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

fake chocolate studyPeer review is supposed to assure that clinical studies are well designed, well executed, and correctly interpreted before they are accepted for publication. That is why I frequently advise you, my readers, to look for clinical studies on their nutritional products that are published in peer reviewed scientific journals as a criteria for choosing a supplement company that you can trust.

But, can the system be gamed? Sadly, the answer is yes. There are journals that only pay lip service to the peer review process. Earlier this year an investigative reporter set out to prove just how easy it is to game the peer review process. It is a fascinating story of how a journalist created the fake chocolate study.

Creating The Fake Chocolate Study Hoax

chocolateThe fake chocolate study was a hoax put together by John Bohannon, an investigative journalist and correspondent to Science (a very well respected scientific journal) to test the peer review system. The study was real, but it was seriously flawed. For example, it had only 16 subjects, there was no effort made to determine what the subjects were eating other than chocolate, and the conclusions were not supported by the data. In short, it was a very bad study—one that would have been rejected by any reputable journal.

For the purposes of the test he called himself Dr. Johannes Bohannon from the “Institute of Diet and Health”, a nonexistent entity that consisted of nothing more than a fake website he set up. He then wrote up the study and titled it “Chocolate with High Cocoa Content as a Weight Loss Accelerator” with the conclusion (not supported by the data) that “Long-term weight loss, however, seems to occur easier and more successfully by adding chocolate. The effect of chocolate, the so-called ‘weight loss turbo’, seems to go hand in hand with personal well-being, which was significantly higher than in the control groups.”

Journals Take The Bait

baitIn March 2015 he submitted the article to 20 online journals. Several accepted it within 24 hours. He chose to publish it in the “International Archives of Medicine.” His paper was published online without any revisions a mere two weeks later. [Note: You should not assume the fact that several out of just 20 journals accepted his paper as in indication that a significant percentage of journals accept sub-standard papers without serious peer review. He had, in fact, done previous research for Science magazine identifying those journals most likely to accept flawed studies. It was those types of journals he sent his study to.]

John Bohannon was later quoted as saying “Editors of reputable journals reject [these kinds of studies] out of hand without even sending them to peer reviewers. But there are plenty of journals that care more about money than reputation.” [It costs $650 to have an article published in the International Archives of Medicine.]

The Media Fans The Flames

flamesIf this study had just been published in an obscure journal and had been ignored, that would have been bad enough. But the story gets even worse.  He then created a press release that he sent to news outlets. The press release made some pretty outrageous statements and even contained a link to an unrelated music video. However, the study made news headlines in more than 20 countries in half a dozen languages. For example, headlines from the Daily Express in England blared: “Chocolate Accelerates Weight Loss: Research Claims it Lowers Cholesterol and Aids Sleep.”

John Bohannon’s take was: “The key is to exploit journalist’s incredible laziness. If you lay out the information just right, you can shape the story that emerges in the media almost like you were writing those stories yourself. In fact, that’s literally what you are doing, since many reporters just copied and pasted our text.”

For the complete story of how John Bohannon pulled off this hoax, read his blog post about the “fake study.

 

The Bottom Line

  • An investigative reporter for Science magazine demonstrated recently just how easy it is to get a fake study published in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • He created a completely bogus study about chocolate aiding weight loss.
  • He submitted it to several journals that he had previously identified as having substandard peer review processes.
  • Several journals accepted it within 24 hours without any peer review process. One published it two weeks later without any revisions.
  • The story of a new “study” showing that chocolate aids weight loss was picked up by the new media and made the headlines in more than 20 countries in half a dozen languages.
  • The vast majority of journals have a very exacting peer review process, which means that most published clinical studies have been thoroughly reviewed and edited prior to publication. For the most part the peer review process works exactly as it is supposed to.
  • However, this hoax shows just how easy it would be for an unethical supplement company to subvert the peer review process and publish bogus studies to support their product claims. That is why when you are choosing a supplement company it is important to choose one with a reputation for scientific integrity.
  • This hoax also shows just how easy it is for bogus information to be picked up by the media and make it into the headlines. You simply cannot believe everything you read in the press, see on the TV and view online. That is why I created “Health Tips From The Professor.”  I wanted to create a place where you can go for accurate information.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Comments (2)

  • Opal Hernandez

    |

    Wow, great article. thanks for all your info. I really appreciate it.
    Opal

    Reply

  • Mimi Vollum

    |

    It’s almost a full-time job trying to keep up with all the many forms of fake news these days! Thanks for your always-helpful information.

    Reply

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Latest Article

Relieve Hip Pain After Sitting or Driving

Posted June 20, 2017 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Relief is Just a Few Movements Away!

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT – The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

relieve hip pain after sittingI’m on a long business trip, speaking and teaching in Tennessee and New York, and the drive from Sarasota, FL meant many hours of driving over several days.  One of my stops was to visit with Suzanne and Dr. Steve Chaney at their home in North Carolina.  It was that long drive that became the inspiration for this blog.

After all those hours of driving, my hip was really sore. It was painful to stand up. While talking to Suzanne and Dr. Chaney I was using my elbow to work on the sore area, and when we were discussing the blog for this month it only made sense to share this technique with you.  So, Dr. Chaney took pictures and I sat at his computer to write.  I thought others may want to how to relieve hip pain after sitting or driving for long periods.

What Causes Anterior Hip Pain?

As I’ve mentioned in posts in the past, sitting is the #1 cause of low back pain, and it also causes anterior hip pain (pain localized towards the front of the hip) because the muscles (psoas and iliacus) pass through the hip and insert into the tendons that then insert into the top of the thigh bone.  When hip pain reliefyou try to stand up, the tight muscle tendons will pull on your thigh bone.  The other thing that happens is the point where the muscle merges into the tendon will be very tight and tender to touch. You aren’t having pain at your hip or thigh bone, but at the muscular point where the muscle and tendon merge.

It’s a bit confusing to describe, but you’ll find it if you sit down and put your fingers onto the tip of your pelvis, then just slide your fingers down toward your thigh and out about 2”. The point is right along the crease where your leg meets your trunk.

The muscle you are treating is the Rectus Femoris, where it merges from the tendon into the muscle fibers.  Follow this link, thigh muscle, to see the muscle and it will be a bit easier to visualize.

You need to be pressing deeply into the muscle, like you’re trying to press the bone and the muscle just happens to be in the way.  Move your fingers around a bit and you’ll find it.

Easy Treatment for Anterior Hip Pain After Sitting

relieve hip painHere is an easy treatment for hip pain after sitting you can administer yourself.  First, sit as I am, with your leg out and slightly turned.

Find the tender point with your fingers and then put your elbow into it as shown.

It’s important to have your arm opened so the point of your elbow is on top of the spasm.  It’s a bit tricky, but if you move about a bit you’ll come on to it, and it will hurt.  Keep the pressure so it’s tolerable, not excruciating.

After you have worked on this point for a few minutes you can move to the second part of the treatment.

hip pain treatmentPut the heel of your “same-side” hand onto your thigh as close to the spasm as you can get.  Lift up your fingers so the pressure is only on the heel of your hand.  You can use your opposite hand to help give more pressure.

Press down hard and deeply slide down the muscle, going toward your knee.  You can also kneed it like you would kneed bread dough, really forcing the muscle fibers to relax.

I’m putting in a picture from a previous blog to explain how you can also treat this point of your rectus femoris by using a ball on the floor.

As shown in this picture, lie on the floor with the ball on your hip muscle, and then slightly turn your body toward the floor so the ball rolls toward the front of your body. You may need to move the ball down an inch or so to get to your Rectus Femoris.

When you feel the pain, you’re on the muscle.  Just stay there for a minute or so, and if you want you can move so the ball goes along the muscle fibers all the way to your knee.

pain free living book coverIt may be a challenge to find this point, but it’s well-worth the effort!

In my book, Treat Yourself to Pain Free Living, I teach how to treat all the muscles that cause pain from your head to your feet.

Wishing you well,

Julie Donnelly

julie donnelly

About The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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