Vitamin E And Heart Disease

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in current health articles, Supplements and Health, Vitamins and Health

Does Vitamin E Reduce Heart Attack Risk?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

vitamin e and heart diseaseSince February is “Heart Health Month”, I thought I would share some information with you that might change how you think about vitamin E and heart disease risk. You’ve seen the headlines: “Vitamin E Does Not Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease”. In fact, these headlines have been repeated so many times that virtually every expert thinks that it has to be true. Let me share the opinion of one expert who disagrees. This week I’m going to share some information with you that I learned from a seminar by Dr. Jeffrey Blumberg from Tufts University.

But first let me tell you who Dr. Blumberg is. Dr. Blumberg is a Professor in the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts. Dr. Blumberg has over 200 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He is considered one of the world’s top experts on supplementation.

Now back to what I learned at his seminar. Dr. Blumberg’s specialty is conducting and analyzing clinical studies, and his perspective on some very influential clinical studies is a bit different from what you may have heard from media reports. He believes that the media has seriously misinterpreted several recent studies. You might call this “The Rest of the Story” because you (and your doctor) definitely did not hear this part of the story in the news.

Does Vitamin E Reduce Heart Disease Risk In Women?

cardiovascular disease in womenLet’s start with vitamin E and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The most influential study on this subject was the Women’s Health Study (Lee et al., JAMA, 294:56-65, 2005). This was a major study in which 39,876 women were given either 600 IU of vitamin E every other day or a placebo and followed for 10 years.

The headlines said “Vitamin E Supplements Do Not Reduce Risk Of Cardiovascular Death, Heart Attack And Stroke In Women”. That was true if you looked at the total population of women in the study.

But Dr. Blumberg pointed out that when you looked at women who were 65 or older in that study vitamin E supplementation caused a…

  • 24% decrease in cardiovascular deaths,
  • 26% decrease in major cardiovascular events,
  • 21% decrease in venous thromboembolism (blood clots forming in the veins),

…and all of these decreases were statistically highly significant. That’s important because the risk of heart disease in pre-menopausal women is extremely low. It’s the over 65 group who have a high risk of heart disease.

Perhaps the headlines should have said: “Vitamin E reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular deaths in those women at high risk of heart attacks”. But, of course, they didn’t. Perhaps that wasn’t considered newsworthy.

Other Studies On Vitamin E and Heart Disease Risk In Women

heart disease riskIf this were the only study suggesting the vitamin E might benefit women at high risk of having a heart attack or stroke, it might be easy to dismiss it, but it’s not the only study showing this effect.

For example, a subsequent study called the “Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study” looked at the effect of 600 IU of vitamin E every other day on cardiovascular events in 8171 women health professionals (Cook et al, Archives of Internal Medicine, 167:1610-1618, 2007).

Once again the headlines said that vitamin E supplementation had no effect on cardiovascular events in women. But, when the authors looked at those women who already had cardiovascular disease at the beginning of the study (and were, therefore, at high risk of suffering a cardiovascular event during the study) vitamin E supplementation caused a 23% decreased risk of heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular death.

Another important study was the HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation) study (Levy et al, Diabetes Care, 27: 2767, 2004). The overall study results were similar to several other recent trials – no significant effect of vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular health in the population group as a whole.

However, by the time that study was performed it was clear that a particular genetic variation in the haptoglobin gene called the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype lead to a significant increase in oxidative damage to the vascular wall (the professor will collect your quizes at the end of this email).

When the data were reanalyzed by genotype, it became clear that people with the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype experienced a significant decrease in both heart attack and cardiovascular death with vitamin E supplementation. This finding has been confirmed by a subsequent double-blind, placebo-control study specifically designed to look at the cardioprotective effects of vitamin E in people with different haptoglobin genotypes (Milman et al, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 24: 136, 2008).

In short, the headlines from all three studies should have said: “Vitamin E reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular deaths in those women at high risk of heart attacks” – and, it doesn’t appear to matter whether the increased risk is due to age, pre-existing disease, or genetic predisposition.

Does Vitamin E Reduce Heart Disease Risk In Men?

heart disease in menFor men the most influential study was called the “Physician’s Health Study II” (H. D. Sesso et al, JAMA, 300: 2123-2133, 2008). In this study male physicians aged 40-84 were invited to participate in a double-blind clinical trial in which they were randomly assigned into groups who were given 400 IU of vitamin E every other day or placebo. They were followed for an average of 8 years during which data on both total mortality and cardiovascular mortality were obtained.

Once again, the headlines read “Vitamin E Does NotPrevent Cardiovascular Disease in Men”. But let me tell you what Dr. Blumberg said so that you understand “The Rest of the Story”. It starts by looking at the selection process for the Physician Health Studies.

Dr. Sesso and his colleagues sent out a letter asking 261,248 male physicians in the US if they would be willing to participate in the study. Only 112,528 responded and, of those responding, only 59,272 indicated that they were willing to participate. Of those who said that they were willing to participate only 32,223 met the selection criteria.

The exclusion criteria eliminated anyone who already had suffered a heart attack, stroke, angina or was on a blood thinner – in other words those people who were at greatest risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke during the study.

Finally, the study had an 18 week “run in” period to eliminate those people who were unwilling or unable to comply with the study protocol. This eliminated another 10,000 participants, leaving only 22,071 participants – less than 10% of the original.

This is where it gets really interesting. Dr. Sesso and his colleagues used publicly available databases to evaluate total and cardiovascular mortality in each group (H. D. Sesso et al, Controlled Clinical Trials, 23: 686-702, 2002). It turns out that at each stage of the selection process the incidence of both total and cardiovascular mortality during the 8-year period decreased.

In fact, the doctors who were actually included in the study were 67% less likely to die from all causes and 73% less likely to die from cardiovascular disease than the male physician population as a whole.

The bottom line is that the selection process eliminated almost all of the physicians at significant risk of having a heart attack or stroke during the study. The only ones who were actually enrolled in the study were those physicians who were at very low risk for having a fatal heart attack or stroke – or dying from any cause – during the study.

So the headlines describing this study should have read “Vitamin E Does Not Prevent Cardiovascular Disease in Men Who Are At Very Low Risk Of Heart Attack And Stroke”.The irony is that there was nothing wrong with the design of the study. It’s probably just a male ego thing. Guys who were unhealthy just didn’t want to participate in a study that might show how unhealthy they really were.

What Does This Mean For You?

These studies illustrate the true story of supplementation. For those of us who are at low risk of disease, supplementation is just a form of health insurance. But for those of us at high risk of disease, supplementation can make a huge difference in our health. That increased risk can be due to many things, as we have seen in the studies above. It can be due to poor diet, age, pre-existing disease, and/or genetic predisposition.

The problem is that most of us don’t really know whether we are at low risk or high risk until it’s too late. For millions of Americans the first sign of heart disease is sudden death.

 

The Bottom Line

  • The experts have been saying for years that vitamin E does not reduce the risk of heart disease. That claim is true, if you look at the general population, most of which is at low risk of developing heart disease – at least during the time frame of the clinical studies. However, when you look at people who are at high risk of developing heart disease, the answer is different.
  • For example, when you look at clinical studies with women, vitamin E significantly decreased the risk of heart attacks in women who…
  • Were over 65,
  • Had pre-existing heart disease at the beginning of the study,
  • Or, had a genetic predisposition to heart disease.

The headlines from these studies should have read “Vitamin E reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in those women at high risk of heart attacks”, but they didn’t.

  • For men the story is a bit different. The Physician’s Health Study is considered the definitive study on the subject. However, most of the unhealthy male physicians either didn’t enroll in the study or dropped out before its completion. In fact, the doctors who were actually included in the study were 67% less likely to die from all causes and 73% less likely to die from cardiovascular disease than the male physician population as a whole. The headlines describing this study should have read “Vitamin E Does Not Prevent Cardiovascular Disease in Men Who Are At Very Low Risk Of Heart Attack And Stroke”.
  • These studies illustrate the true story of supplementation. For those of us who are at low risk of disease, supplementation is just a form of health insurance. But for those of us at high risk of disease, supplementation can make a huge difference in our health. That increased risk can be due to many things, as we have seen in the studies above. It can be due to poor diet, age, pre-existing disease, and/or genetic predisposition.
  • The problem is that most of us don’t really know whether we are at low risk or high risk until it’s too late. For millions of Americans the first sign of heart disease is sudden death.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Does Magnesium Optimize Vitamin D Levels?

Posted February 12, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

The Case For Holistic Supplementation

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Does magnesium optimize vitamin D levels?

magnesium optimize vitamin dOne of the great mysteries about vitamin D is the lack of correlation between vitamin D intake and blood levels of its active metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Many people who consume RDA levels of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements end up with low blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The reason(s) for this discrepancy between intake of vitamin D and blood levels of its active metabolite are not currently understood.

Another great mystery is why it has been so difficult to demonstrate benefits of vitamin D supplementation. Association studies show a strong correlation between optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and reduced risk of heart disease, cancer, and other diseases. However, placebo-controlled clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have often come up empty. Until recently, many of those studies did not measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Could it be that optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were not achieved?

The authors of the current study hypothesized that optimal magnesium status might be required for vitamin D conversion to its active form. You are probably wondering why magnesium would influence vitamin D metabolism. I had the same question.

The authors pointed out that:

  • Magnesium status affects the activities of enzymes involved in both the synthesis and degradation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • Some clinical studies have suggested that magnesium intake interacts with vitamin D intake in affecting health outcomes.
  • If the author’s hypothesis is correct, it is a concern because magnesium deficiency is prevalent in this country. In their “Fact Sheet For Health Professionals,” the NIH states that “…a majority of Americans of all ages ingest less magnesium from food than their respective EARs [Estimated Average Requirement]; adult men aged 71 years and older and adolescent females are most likely to have low intakes.” Other sources have indicated that magnesium deficiency may approach 70-80% for adults over 70.

If the author’s hypothesis that magnesium is required for vitamin D activation is correct and most Americans are deficient in magnesium, this raises some troubling questions.

  • Most vitamin D supplements do not contain magnesium. If people aren’t getting supplemental magnesium from another source, they may not be optimally utilizing the vitamin D in the supplements.
  • Most clinical studies involving vitamin D do not also include magnesium. If most of the study participants are deficient in magnesium, it might explain why it has been so difficult to show benefits from vitamin D supplementation.

Thus the authors devised a study (Q Dai et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108: 1249-1258, 2018 ) to directly test their hypothesis.

 

How Was The Study Designed?

magnesium optimize vitamin d studyThe authors recruited 180 volunteers, aged 40-85, from an ongoing study on the prevention of colon cancer being conducted at Vanderbilt University. The duration of the study was 12 weeks. Blood was drawn at the beginning of the study to measure baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Three additional blood draws to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were performed at weeks 1, 6, and 12.

Because high blood calcium levels increase excretion of magnesium, the authors individualized magnesium intake based on “optimizing” the calcium to magnesium ratio in the diet rather than giving everyone the same amount of magnesium. The dietary calcium to magnesium ratio for most Americans is 2.6 to 1 or higher. Based on their previous work, they considered an “ideal” calcium to magnesium ratio to be 2.3 to 1. The mean daily dose of magnesium supplementation in this study was 205 mg, with a range from 77 to 390 mg to achieve the “ideal” calcium to magnesium ratio. The placebo was an identical gel capsule containing microcrystalline cellulose.

Two 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted at baseline to determine baseline dietary intake of calcium and magnesium. Four additional 24-hour dietary recalls were performed during the 12-week study to assure that calcium intake was unchanged and the calcium to magnesium ratio of 2.3 to 1 was achieved.

In short this was a small study, but it was very well designed to test the author’s hypothesis.

 

Does Magnesium Optimize Vitamin D Levels?

 

does magnesium optimize vitamin d levelsThis was a very complex study, so I am simplifying it for this discussion. For full details, I refer you to the journal article (Q Dai et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108: 1249-1258, 2018).

The most significant finding was that magnesium supplementation did affect blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation varied depending on the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level at the beginning of the study.

  • When the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 20 ng/ml or less (which the NIH considers inadequate), magnesium supplementation had no effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
  • When the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 20-30 ng/ml (which the NIH considers the lower end of the adequate range), magnesium supplementation increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
  • When the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level approached 50 ng/ml (which the NIH says may be “associated with adverse effects”), magnesium supplementation lowered 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

The simplest interpretation of these results is:

  • When vitamin D intake is inadequate, magnesium cannot magically create 25-hydroxyvitamin D from thin air.
  • When vitamin D intake is adequate, magnesium can enhance the conversion of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • When vitamin D intake is too high, magnesium can help protect you by lowering 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

The authors concluded: “Our findings suggest that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. Further dosing studies are warranted…”

 

What Does This Study Mean For You?

magnesium optimize vitamin d for youThis was a groundbreaking study that has provided novel and interesting results.

  • It provides the first evidence that optimal magnesium status may be required for optimizing the conversion of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • It suggests that optimal magnesium status can help normalize 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels by increasing low levels and decreasing high levels.

However, this was a small study and, like any groundbreaking study, has significant limitations. For a complete discussion of the limitations and strengths of this study I refer you to the editorial (S Lin and Q Liu, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108: 1159-1161, 2018) that accompanied the study.

In summary, this study needs to be replicated by larger clinical studies with a more diverse study population. In order to provide meaningful results, those studies would need to carefully control and monitor calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D intake. There is also a need for mechanistic studies to better understand how magnesium can both increase low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and decrease high 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

However, assuming the conclusions of this study to be true, it has some interesting implications:

  • If you are taking a vitamin D supplement, you should probably make sure that you are also getting the DV (400 mg) of magnesium from diet plus supplementation.
  • If you are taking a calcium supplement, you should check that it also provides a significant amount of magnesium. If not, change supplements or make sure that you get the DV for magnesium elsewhere.
  • I am suggesting that you shoot for the DV (400 mg) of magnesium rather than reading every label and calculating the calcium to magnesium ratio. The “ideal” ratio of 2.3 to 1 is hypothetical at this point. A supplement providing the DV of both calcium and magnesium would have a calcium to magnesium ratio of 2.5, and I would not fault any manufacturer for providing you with the DV of both nutrients.
  • If you are taking high amounts of calcium, I would recommend a supplement that has a calcium to magnesium ratio of 2.5 or less.
  • If you are considering a magnesium supplement to optimize your magnesium status, you should be aware that magnesium can cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea. I would recommend a sustained release magnesium supplement.
  • Finally, whole grains and legumes are among your best dietary sources of magnesium. Forget those diets that tell you to eliminate whole food groups. They are likely to leave you magnesium-deficient.

Even if the conclusions of this study are not confirmed by subsequent studies, we need to remember that magnesium is an essential nutrient with many health benefits and that most Americans do not get enough magnesium in their diet. The recommendations I have made for optimizing magnesium status are common-sense recommendations that apply to all of us.

 

The Case For Holistic Supplementation

 

magnesium optimize vitamin d case for holistic supplementationThis study is one of many examples showing that a holistic approach to supplementation is superior to a “magic bullet” approach where you take individual nutrients to solve individual problems. For example, in the case of magnesium and vitamin D:

  • If you asked most nutrition experts and supplement manufacturers whether it is important to provide magnesium along with vitamin D, their answer would likely be “No”. Even if they are focused on bone health, they would be more likely to recommend calcium along with vitamin D than magnesium along with vitamin D.
  • If your doctor has tested your 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and recommended a vitamin D supplement, chances are they didn’t also recommend that you optimize your magnesium status.
  • Clinical studies investigating the benefits of vitamin D supplementation never ask whether magnesium intake is optimal.

That’s because most doctors and nutrition experts still think of nutrients as “magic bullets.” I cover holistic supplementation in detail in my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths.”  Other examples that make a case for holistic supplementation that I cover in my book include:

  • A study showing that omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins may work together to prevent cognitive decline. Unfortunately, most studies looking at the effect of B vitamins on cognitive decline have not considered omega-3 status and vice versa. No wonder those studies have produced inconsistent results.
  • Studies looking at the effect of calcium supplementation on loss of bone density in the elderly have often failed to include vitamin D, magnesium, and other nutrients that are needed for building healthy bone. They have also failed to include exercise, which is essential for building healthy bone. No wonder some of those studies have failed to find an effect of calcium supplementation on bone density.
  • A study reported that selenium and vitamin E by themselves might increase prostate cancer risk. Those were the headlines you might have seen. The same study showed Vitamin E and selenium together did not increase prostate cancer risk. Somehow that part of the study was never mentioned.
  • A study reported that high levels of individual B vitamins increased mortality slightly. Those were the headlines you might have seen. The same study showed that when the same B vitamins were combined in a B complex supplement, mortality decreased. Somehow that observation never made the headlines.
  • A 20-year study reported that a holistic approach to supplementation produced significantly better health outcomes.

In summary, vitamins and minerals interact with each other to produce health benefits in our bodies. Some of those interactions we know about. Others we are still learning about. When we take high doses of individual vitamins and minerals, we create potential problems.

  • We may not get the full benefit of the vitamin or mineral we are taking because some other important nutrient(s) may be missing from our diet.
  • Even worse, high doses of one vitamin or mineral may interfere with the absorption or enhance the excretion of another vitamin or mineral. That can create deficiencies.

The same principles apply to our diet. I mentioned earlier that whole grains and legumes are among the best dietary sources of magnesium. Eliminating those two foods from the diet increases our risk of becoming magnesium deficient. And, that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Any time you eliminate foods or food groups from the diet, you run the risk of creating deficiencies of nutrients, phytonutrients, specific types of fiber, and the healthy gut bacteria that use that fiber as their preferred food source.

The Bottom Line

 

A recent study suggests that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. This is one of many examples showing that a holistic approach to supplementation is superior to a “magic bullet” approach where you take individual nutrients to solve individual problems. For example, in the case of magnesium and vitamin D:

  • If you asked most nutrition experts and supplement manufacturers whether it is important to provide magnesium along with vitamin D, their answer would likely be “No.”  Even if they are focused on bone health, they would be more likely to recommend calcium along with vitamin D than magnesium along with vitamin D.
  • If your doctor has tested your 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and recommended a vitamin D supplement, chances are he or she did not also recommend that you optimize your magnesium status.
  • Clinical studies investigating the benefits of vitamin D supplementation never ask whether magnesium intake is optimal. That may be why so many of those studies have failed to find any benefit of vitamin D supplementation.

I cover holistic supplementation in detail in my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths” and provide several other examples where a holistic approach to supplementation is superior to taking individual supplements.

In summary, vitamins and minerals interact with each other to produce health benefits in our bodies. Some of those interactions we know about. Others we are still learning about. Whenever we take high doses of individual vitamins and minerals, we create potential problems.

  • We may not get the full benefit of the vitamin or mineral we are taking because some other important nutrient(s) may be missing from our diet.
  • Even worse, high doses of one vitamin or mineral may interfere with the absorption or enhance the excretion of another vitamin or mineral. That can create deficiencies.

The same principles apply to what we eat. For example, whole grains and legumes are among the best dietary sources of magnesium. Eliminating those two foods from the diet increases our risk of becoming magnesium deficient. And, that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Any time you eliminate foods or food groups from the diet, you run the risk of creating deficiencies.

For more details about the current study and what it means to you read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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