What to Eat For Healthy Skin

Written by Dr. Steve Chaney on . Posted in Healthy Skin, What to Eat for Healthy Skin

Beautiful Skin Starts On The Inside

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

What to eat for healthy skin?

what to eat for healthy skinIf you stare into the mirror and think you see your mother or your father staring back, you are not alone. Where did those lines…those crow’s feet…those wrinkles come from? If you are like most of us, you want to do something about it. Americans are expected to spend $11 billion on skincare in 2018.

Great skincare products can work wonders, but are they enough? Are we forgetting something? The answer, of course, is yes. For truly beautiful skin we need to make sure that it also gets the nutrition that it needs. We need to feed it from the inside out.

That’s because skin cells form in the surface of the dermis, the lowest layer of our skin, and are pushed up, layer by layer, until they reach the surface. If you start out with healthy cells in your dermis, all your skincare regimen needs to do is to preserve the health of those cells as they rise to the surface.

Here are some suggestions for creating healthy and beautiful skin cells.

What to Eat For Healthy Skin – Avoid Inflammation

what to eat for healthy skin inflammationLike any other cell in the body, creating healthy skin cells starts with proper diet. I will cover nutrients below, but let’s start out by considering diet and inflammation. Some have gone as far as calling inflammation skin’s number one enemy.

That may be going a bit far. However, inflammation is associated with many skin conditions such as acne, rosacea, eczema, and chronic dry skin, just to name a few. Inflammation also accelerates the aging process. It does that by increasing cortisol levels, which slows the wound healing process and leads to collagen breakdown. That, in turn, leads to wrinkled and sagging skin.

Inflammation of the outer layers of skin cells is cause by UV radiation. This is where a good anti-aging skincare regimen comes in. Inflammation of the lower layers of skin cells is caused by stress, lack of sleep, obesity, and poor diet, but let’s focus on the role of diet for this article.

Anti-inflammatory diets have become so mainstream that they now appear on reputable health organization websites such as WebMD, the Mayo Clinic, and the Cleveland Clinic.

So, what to eat for healthy skin? In a nutshell, an anti-inflammatory diet includes fruits and vegetables, whole grains, plant-based proteins (like beans and nuts), fatty fish, and fresh herbs and spices. Anti-inflammatory diets do not need to be extreme. For example, a recent study, L. Galland, Nutrition and Clinical Practice, 25: 634-640, 2010 , has shown that the Mediterranean Diet is anti-inflammatory.

Specifically, your diet should emphasize:

Colorful fruits and vegetables. Not only do they help fight inflammation, but they are a great source of antioxidants and other nutrients important for a healthy skin.

Whole grains. They are a good source of fiber, and fiber helps flush inflammatory toxins out of the body.

Beans and other legumes. They should be your primary source of protein. They are high in fiber and contain antioxidants and other anti-inflammatory nutrients.

Nuts, olive oil, and avocados. They are good sources of healthy monounsaturated fats, which fight inflammation.

Fatty fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are all great sources of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, which are incorporated into our cell membranes. Those long-chain omega-3s in cell membranes are, in turn, used to create compounds that are powerful inflammation fighters. Unfortunately, our oceans are heavily contaminated, so omega-3-rich fish are often contaminated with heavy metals and PCBs. Many experts recommend avoiding tuna and farm raised salmon completely and eating wild salmon no more than once or twice a month.

Walnuts, flaxseeds, and chia seeds are good sources of short-chain omega-3s. Those short-chain omega-3s are heart healthy, but it is unclear to what extent they reduce inflammation. The efficiency of their conversion to long-chain omega-3s that can be incorporated into cell membranes is only around 2-5%. If they fight inflammation, it is probably because they replace some of the saturated fats and omega-6 fats you might otherwise be eating (see the list of foods that increase inflammation below).

Herbs and spices. They add antioxidants and other nutrients that fight inflammation. More importantly, they replace salt. Excess salt can cause you to retain water, which gives your face a puffy look.

In a nutshell, an anti-inflammatory diet should exclude highly processed, overly greasy, or super sweet foods, especially sodas and other sweet drinks.

Specifically, your diet should minimize:

what to eat for healthy skin avoid sugarRefined carbohydrates and sugary foods. These foods are often high in fat as well. They lead to weight gain and high blood sugar, both of which cause inflammation. Sugar also attaches to collagen and elastin, causing your skin to lose its elasticity.

Foods high in saturated fats. This includes fatty and processed meats, butter, and high fat dairy products. That’s because saturated fat causes inflammation.

Foods high in trans-fats. This includes margarine, coffee creamers, and any processed food containing partly hydrogenated vegetable oils. Trans-fats are very pro-inflammatory.

French fries, fried chicken, and other fried foods. They used to be fried in saturated fat and/or trans-fat. Nowadays, they are generally fried in omega-6 vegetable oils. A little omega-6 in the diet is OK, but Americans get too much omega-6 fatty acids in our diet. A high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is pro-inflammatory.

Foods you are allergic or sensitive to. Eating any food that you are sensitive to can cause inflammation. This comes up most often with respect to gluten and dairy because so many people are sensitive to one or both. However, if you are not sensitive to them, there is no reason to exclude whole grain gluten-containing foods or low fat dairy foods from your diet.

What to Eat For Healthy Skin – Nutrients

Like any other cell in the body, healthy skin cells need a proper balance of essential vitamins, minerals, and protein. If you are a vegan or eat a mostly plant-based diet, you might be low in nutrients like vitamin B12, iron, calcium and protein. If you eat a typical American diet, you may be deficient in multiple nutrients. If you suspect, for any reason, that your diet may be short of some essential nutrients, a quality multivitamin and plant-based protein supplement can help you fill the gaps.

In addition, many Americans do not get enough of these nutrients that are important for healthy skin:

What to eat for healthy skin concerning nutrients?

what to eat for healthy skin vegetablesCarotenoids. Beta-carotene and related carotenoids are precursors to vitamin A, which is important for maintaining a healthy skin. They are also important antioxidants. You can get the full spectrum of carotenoids from a diet rich in multicolored fruits and vegetables, but 43% of Americans are not getting the recommended amount of these nutrients from their diet. For that reason, I often recommend that people look for supplement that provides the major carotenoids like beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.

Vitamins C and E. Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, which keeps the skin firm and supple. Both vitamin C and E are important antioxidants that help fight free radical damage caused by pollution, smoking, food additives, and sun exposure. Free radicals are a major cause of skin aging. In today’s world, we are exposed to free radicals from many different sources. 39% of Americans don’t get enough vitamin C from their diet, and 88% don’t get enough vitamin E, so extra vitamins C and E are important to help prevent our skin from aging prematurely.

Omega-3 fatty acids. As mentioned above, omega-3 fatty acids exert a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. They are also an important component of skin cell membranes, helping to keep the skin moist and supple.

Unfortunately, as I have reported recently, most of us are woefully deficient in omega-3s. For example, one study reported that 90% of Canadian women of child bearing age have suboptimal omega-3 intake. Another study showed that US women of child-bearing age are getting only around 20% of the recommended level of omega-3s from their diet. Finally, a recent study has shown that most Americans have very low tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids. In fact, our tissue levels of omega-3s are among the lowest in the world.

It is clear we should be getting more omega-3s in our diets. Eating more omega-3-rich fish would seem like an obvious recommendation. However, as mentioned above, our oceans are polluted. Fish are often contaminated with heavy metals or PCBs. For that reason, I often recommend a high-purity omega-3 supplement to make sure we get enough omega-3s in our diet.

Polyphenols. Polyphenols are good antioxidants. In addition, resveratrol and related polyphenols from muscadine grapes activate cellular anti-aging genes. Those genes, in turn, activate DNA repair and inhibit the cellular stress response. We are just beginning to learn about the role of these important phytonutrients in keeping our skin young and healthy.

The Bottom Line

If you want healthy, younger looking, skin, a good skin care regimen is only part of the solution. You also need a diet that gives your skin the nutrition it needs from the inside out.

1) Inflammation is your skin’s # 1 enemy, so good nutrition starts with an anti-inflammatory diet.

2) An anti-inflammatory diet emphasizes:

• Colorful fruits & vegetables
• Whole grains
• Beans and other legumes
• Nuts, olive oil & avocados
• Fatty fish
• Herbs and spices

3) An anti-inflammatory diet minimizes:

• Refined carbohydrates and sugary foods
• Foods high in saturated fats
• Foods containing trans- fats
• Fried foods
• Foods you are allergic or sensitive to

4) We may not be getting enough of certain nutrients that are particularly important for a healthy skin. They are:

• Carotenoids
• Vitamins C & E
• Omega-3 fatty acids
• Polyphenols

For more details, read the article above.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Latest Article

Does Protein Supplement Timing Matter?

Posted May 15, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

How Do You Gain Muscle Mass & Lose Fat Mass?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

protein supplement timingMost of what you read about protein supplements on the internet is wrong. That is because most published studies on protein supplements:

  • Are very small
  • Are not double blinded.
    • Both the subjects and the investigators knew who got the protein supplement.
  • Are done by individual companies with their product.
    • You have no idea which ingredients are in their product are responsible for the effects they report.
    • You have no idea how their product compares with other protein products.
    • There is no standardization with respect to the amount or type of protein or the addition of non-protein ingredients.

Because of these limitations there is a lot of misleading information on the benefits of protein supplements timing and maximal benefit. Let’s start by looking at why people use protein supplements. Let’s also look at what is generally accepted as true with respect to the best supplement timing.

There are 4 major reasons people consume protein supplements:

  • Enhance the muscle gain associated with resistance training: In this case, protein supplements are customarily consumed concurrently with the workout.
  • Preserve muscle and accelerate fat loss while on a weight loss diet: In this case, protein supplements are customarily consumed with meals or as meal replacements.
  • Provide a healthier protein source. In this case, protein supplements are customarily consumed with meals in place of meat protein.
  • Prevent muscle loss associated with aging or illness. There is no customary pattern associated with this use of protein supplements.

How good are the data supporting the customary timing of protein supplementation? The answer is: Not very good. The timing is based on a collection of weak studies which do not always agree with each other.

The current study  (J.L. Hudson et al, Nutrition Reviews, 76: 461-468, 2018 ) was designed to fill this void in our knowledge. It is a meta-analysis that compares all reasonably good studies that have looked at the effect of protein supplement timing on weight gain or loss, lean muscle mass gain, fat loss, and the ratio of lean muscle mass to fat mass.

How Was The Study Done?

The authors started by doing a literature search of all studies that met the following criteria:

  • The study was a randomized control trial with parallel design. This means that study contained a control group. It does not mean that the investigators or subjects were blinded with respect to which subjects used a protein supplement and which did not.
  • The subjects were engaged in resistance training.
  • The study lasted 6 weeks or longer.
  • Reliable methods were used to measure body composition (lean muscle mass and fat mass).
  • The subjects were healthy and at least 19 years old.
  • There was no restriction on the food the subjects consumed.

The authors started with 2074 published studies and ended up with 34 that met all their criteria. They then separated the studies into two groups – those in which the protein supplements were used with meals and those in which the protein supplements were used between meals.

Both groups were diverse.

  • Group 1 included subjects who consumed their protein supplement with their meal and those who consumed their protein supplement as a meal replacement.
  • Group 2 included subjects who consumed their protein supplement concurrent with exercise (usually immediately after exercise) and those who consumed their protein supplement at a fixed time of day not associated with exercise.

Does Protein Supplement Timing Matter?

 

protein supplement timing workoutsBecause the individual studies were very diverse in the way they were designed, the authors could not calculate a reliable estimate of how much lean muscle mass was increased or fat mass was decreased. Instead, they calculated the percentage of studies showing an increase in lean muscle mass or a decrease in fat mass.

When the authors compared protein supplements consumed with meals versus protein supplements consumed between meals:

  • Weight gain was observed in 56% of the studies of protein supplementation with meals compared to 72% of the studies of protein supplementation between meals. In other words, protein supplements consumed with meals were less likely to lead to weight gain than protein supplements consumed between meals.
  • An increase in lean muscle mass was observed in 94% of the studies of protein supplementation with meals compared to 90% of the studies of protein supplementation between meals. In other words, timing of protein supplementation did not matter with respect to increase in muscle mass.
  • A loss of fat mass was observed in 87% of the studies of protein supplementation with meals compared to 59% of the studies of protein supplementation between meals. In other words, protein supplements consumed with meals were more likely to lead to loss of fat mass.
  • An increase in the ratio of lean muscle mass to fat mass was observed in 100% of the studies of protein supplementation with meals compared to 87% of the studies of protein supplementation between meals. In short, protein supplements consumed with meals were slightly more likely to lead to an increase in the ratio of lean muscle mass to fat mass.

The following seem to suggest protein supplement timing matters:

The authors pointed out that their findings were consistent with previous studies showing that when protein supplements are consumed with a meal they displace some of the calories that otherwise would have been consumed. Simply put, people naturally compensate by eating less of other foods.

In contrast, the authors stated that previous studies have shown that when foods, especially liquid foods, are consumed as snacks (between meals), people are less likely to compensate by reducing the calories consumed in the next meal.

The others concluded: “Concurrently with resistance training, consuming protein supplements with meals, rather than between meals, may more effectively promote weight control and reduce fat mass without influencing improvements in lean [muscle] mass.”

What Are The Limitations Of The Study?

Meta-analyses such as this one, are only as good as the studies included in the meta-analysis. Unfortunately, most sports nutrition studies are very weak studies. Thus, this meta-analysis is a perfect example of the “Garbage In: Garbage Out (GI:GO)” phenomenon.

For example, let’s start by looking at what the term “protein supplement” meant.

  • Because the studies were done by individual companies with their product, the protein supplements in this meta-analysis:
    • Included whey, casein, soy, bovine colostrum, rice or combinations of protein sources.
    • Were isolates, concentrates, or hydrolysates.
    • Contained various additions like creatine, amino acids, and carbohydrate.
  • As I discuss in my book, Slaying the Food Myths, previous studies have shown that optimal protein and leucine levels are needed to maximize the increase in muscle mass and decrease in fat mass associated with resistance exercise. However, neither protein nor leucine levels were standardized in the protein supplements included in this meta-analysis.
  • Previous studies have shown that protein supplements that have little effect on blood sugar levels (have a low glycemic index) are more likely to curb appetite. However, glycemic index was not standardized for the protein supplements included in this meta-analysis.

protein supplement timing workout peopleIn short, the conclusions of this study might be true for some protein supplements, but not for others. We have no way of knowing.

We also need to consider the composition of the two groups.

  • Protein supplements used as meal replacements are more likely to decrease weight and fat mass than protein supplements consumed with meals. Yet, both were included in group 1.
  • Some studies suggest that protein supplements consumed concurrent with resistance exercise are more likely to increase muscle mass than protein supplements consumed another time of day. Yet, both are included in group 2. We also have no idea whether the meals with protein supplements in group 1 were consumed shortly after exercise or at an entirely different time of day.

This was the most glaring weakness of the study because it was completely avoidable. The authors could have grouped the studies into categories that made more sense.

In other words, there are multiple weaknesses that limit the predictive power of this study.

What Can We Learn From This Study?

Despite its many limitations, this study does remind us that protein supplements do have calories. This is of relatively little importance for people whose primary goal is to increase lean muscle mass.

However, most of us are using protein supplements to lose weight or to increase our lean mass to fat mass ratio. Simply put, we are either trying to lean out (shape up) or lose weight. And, we want to lose that weight primarily by getting rid of excess fat. For us, calories do matter. With that in mind:

  • If we are consuming a protein supplement immediately after exercise or between meals we probably should make a conscious effort to reduce our daily caloric intake elsewhere in our diet.
  • Alternatively, we could consume the protein supplement with a meal, but time the meal so it occurs shortly after exercise.

 

The Bottom Line:

 

A recent study looked at the optimal timing of protein supplements consumed by subjects who were engaged in resistance exercise. Specifically, the study compared protein supplements consumed with meals versus protein supplements consumed between meals on weight, lean muscle mass, fat mass, and the ratio of lean muscle mass to fat mass. The study reported:

  • Protein supplements consumed with meals were less likely to lead to weight gain than protein supplements consumed between meals.
  • Timing of protein supplementation did not matter with respect to increase in muscle mass.
  • Protein supplements consumed with meals were more likely to lead to loss of fat mass.
  • Protein supplements consumed with meals were slightly more likely to lead to an increase in the ratio of lean mass to fat mass.

The authors pointed out that their findings were consistent with previous studies showing that when a protein supplement was consumed with a meal it displaces some of the calories that would have been otherwise consumed. Simply put, people naturally compensate by eating less of other foods.

In contrast, the authors said that previous studies have shown that when foods, especially liquid foods, are consumed as snacks (between meals), people are less likely to compensate by reducing the calories consumed in the next meal.

As discussed in the article above, the study has major weaknesses. However, despite its many weaknesses, this study does remind us that protein supplements do have calories. This is of relatively little importance for people whose primary goal is to increase lean muscle mass.

However, for those of us who are using protein supplements to lose weight or to increase our lean mass to fat mass ratio, calories do matter.  With that in mind:

  • If we are consuming a protein supplement immediately after exercise or between meals we probably should make a conscious effort to reduce our daily caloric intake elsewhere in our diet.
  • Alternatively, we could consume the protein supplement with a meal, but time the meal so it occurs shortly after exercise.

For more details, read the article above:

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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